category: Geography


- Models of spatial development. Model "center-periphery". Center and periphery of the world economy. Features interaction between central and peripheral areas at the global, regional and local levels.
-Diffusion models of innovation: the spatial distribution pattern of innovation. The degree of receptivity to innovation.
- Types of economic regions (for Dzh.Fridmanu).
- "Poles of growth" by F. Perroux.

space as all objects of material and immaterial nature, has its own laws of development, defined by the concentration of economic activities in limited habitats, its distribution in the peripheral regions and the drift of the centers in the course of economic development.

Developing spatial models of the economy is based on the existence of a universal cycle of events, driving the emergence, amplification and homogenization of these contrasts.

MODEL CENTER - PERIPHERY. Model "center - periphery" in the classical form was designed by John Friedman in the late 60's. and described in the book "Politics of Regional Development".

Every economy is linked together and interact with each zone. In the space of the quality of the economy, the level of economic development, technology, culture, vary depending on the movement from central to peripheral areas. These areas are antipodes-center, combining most advanced (the place of origin of technological and social innovations) and a huge peripherals - Wednesday distribution (with a sparse population, characterized by archaic, backward, features easy operation of the center) - occur at all levels - global, regional, country. Peripherals uniform - it has an internal (near-), which is closely linked with the center and receives directly from his impulses to development, and foreign (distant), which center does not have little impact.


Interaction of central and peripheral areas. Permanent dominance over the periphery of the center provided constant innovation activities: in the most intensive contacts, access to information. In agglomeration, the economic dominance of the center provided by pumping resources from peripheral areas, which strengthens and reinforces the differences between them. Businesses that do not meet more status of the center (for example, "old" industries - metallurgy, routine labor-intensive production in emerging industries, and some non-productive, for example, highly specialized research functions) are displaced to the near and then distant periphery. This process called the "diffusion of old innovations, although certain development and contributes to the periphery, but also reinforces its subordinate position relative to the center.

center and periphery at any spatial level of interconnected streams of information, capital, goods, labor. Distribution innovations and information is on three levels: 1) by the leading economic regions of the national Heartland to areas of the periphery - the hinterland, and 2) from centers of higher-level centers of the second order, 3) of the major cities in the surrounding areas.

a result of these interactions, despite the constant tightening the periphery, the gap between it and the center remains. Contrasts Center -- Peripherals "give impetus to the emergence and reproduction of spatial inequality, exacerbated by the uneven economic growth.

center and periphery of world economy: geographical position.

geographical location of the central region of the world economic center of the world - has changed in the course of historical development. At a time when the actual world economy as general economic ties have not yet exist in each region there was a local economic center. As the Transport and involvement in the scope of a single commodity-money relations world space dominance in the global economy began to occupy metropolis exploited the vast colony.

Western Europe - the citadel of the industrial revolution was a hotbed of initial industrialization. Over a long period of European colonial Powers, concentrated the bulk of the world's economic capacity, introduce new technologies and forms of work organization. Industrial development occurred as the breadth, through the emergence of new centers in agricultural areas and inland, due to changes in recruitment of leading industries and their reorganization in old industrial areas. Of the metropolitan coordinate the development of world space, controlled by the main transport routes. Europe the first beginning of modern industrialization, transformed into a global economic and political center. From

XVv. world economic and financial center migrated to Europe: first, he was in Genoa, then in Amsterdam. Later, European trade ways have begun to link in Antwerp, and Holland was as though its suburbs, and the rest of the world - its a big suburb. Strengthening the UK due the industrial revolution and the exploitation of the colonies transferred to the palm London. Later

compete in Western Europe amounted to U.S. and Japan: in the early twentieth century. the role of world leader, moved to New York, then in the Pacific (axis Los Angeles Tokyo). Monocentric system is transformed into a polycentric, with new centers are not encumbered obsolete major funds, the current settlement system and other factors of inertia, were ahead of Europe.

With the 60-ies. XX. opposition to the economically developed countries (Center) - Developing countries (periphery) has been called "North-South" basis of their geographical location. Center and periphery distinguishes the prevalence of specific processes: the center operates, peripherals exploited; in center - a higher level of wages and a diversified economic structure, the application of advanced technologies in all sectors. World peripherals have always been a poor backward country, weakly involved in the commodity-money relations with poorly developed division of labor and cheap life - An indicator of underdevelopment. At the global level as a center performs a group of leading industrialized nations, which originate key direction of scientific and technological progress are the main centers of decision-making. According to them semi-periphery with a high degree of conditionality can considered moderately developed capitalist countries (Spain, Portugal, Greece, Ireland) and the so-called newly industrialized countries (South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, etc.), the industry which has grown in 1970-80-ies. through labor-intensive industries, the level and pace of development of the country close to them Eastern Europe, and China. Semi-periphery of world economy is gradually increasing, there are close to Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, with their cheap labor and Kuwait, Iraq, Libya, Algeria, the oil capital. Periphery of the world economy are the most backward countries of the raw materials specialization.

central and peripheral AREAS AT THE REGIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS. Always and in all regions of the world has its own periphery. The Chinese have developed the material and spiritual culture, expanding the limits of his empire, considered inhabitants of Indo-China and Inner Mongolia, the barbarians, as the Greeks considered barbarians all those who did not speak Greek. The marginal areas of Europe has always were less developed. Sicily XVIII century., Sardinia, Turkey's Balkan territories, of which the product is being pumped to the markets of Central Europe. Similarly, there were Levantine belonged to Venice Island, where the external demand for raisins and liqueur wine, tied to the XV century. absorbing monoculture damaging local population.

"Regional" in the periphery of the economically developed countries make up the resource margin, areas of concentration of national minorities, zone of the new industrialization, depressed old industrial and agro industrial areas with a less favorable natural conditions. All these areas have lower wages, loss of surplus value created here. Example Medzadzhorno area - southern areas of Sicily (Italy). This income level is almost two times lower than the national average, high employment in agriculture, high crime and emigration.

In economically developed countries in the central regions dominated by the structure, more typical of post-industrial stage of development.

In developing countries the problem is more acute. Center represented enclaves of modern industry and the plantation economy, peripherals -- subsistence farming areas, effectively rendering the internal colony. Their development is based on the use of a limited set of resources. Main nucleus and the leading manufacturing center is usually the capital city. Rest of the country brought the agrarian periphery with sparse small towns.

At the city level to the peripheral areas include workers' quarters are located far from obsolete industrial giants, slums and ghettos.


Swedish scientist Tersten Hegerstrand in his work as a spatial diffusion process of introducing innovations "showed that the probability dissemination of innovations associated primarily with the distance. He explored

way flow of information through a system of areas and patterns of information exchange between the regions: how fast and by what channels subject to waves of diffusion.

"" Diffusion expansion is due to direct contacts - innovations spread outwards from the area source. The area of distribution gradually expands, but is localized within the area of its origin, it becomes more numerous and pronounced. Diffusion displacement associated with migration phenomena and objects from the range of their occurrence in other areas. For example, the migration of blacks and black culture from Africa to the United States, Europe.


J. Friedman identified 4 types of economic regions.

1) Regions-core (core-regions), which concentrated the advanced sectors of the economy, there is high potential for the introduction innovations. They can be identified at all levels and scales - global, national, regional centers. Globally, these areas Friedman include Western Europe and East Coast USA.

2) growing areas in his position are peripheral areas. However, proximity to areas of nuclei gives them incentives to growth. This type include areas of new industrial building on the basis of intense exploitation of natural resources and the so-called "development corridors". They are located between the major economic centers, the intensive communication between them, which cause the formation of regions of this type.

3) areas of new development located in areas where being developed and populated previously virgin land. For example, the economic development of the Amazon lowlands from the centers of Colombia and Brazil. The main economic activities in the areas of new development - is agriculture, logging and mining. 4) depressed areas is the peripheral areas with old-established settlements, characterized by stagnating rural economy and industry. The loss of the original resource base (due to the depletion of mineral deposits), the aging of industrial complexes lead to the aggravation of the socio - economic problems, unemployment, increased crime, lower standards of living, and, as a consequence - The migration of the population in growing areas.

"growth pole" Fr. Perroux. French economist Francois Perroux under the poles of growth realized compact and dynamic content developing industries, which generate a chain reaction of the emergence and growth of industrial centers in the hinterland. This theory as the basis for regional programs in many countries.

growth poles are created in order to enhance economic activities in the backward peripheral, problem areas, "growth pole" concentrated sent to new investments rather than spraying them around the area. Thus, created new industries are more likely ensure sintering savings - the benefits of common infrastructure, expansion of markets.

By the mid-70 hgg. theory of growth poles was subjected to sharp criticism, particularly in its applicability in developing countries, as it turned out that ideas of development embodied in the most developed regions of the globe, are not always acceptable to its backward regions. A classic example of the growth poles are new capital in developing countries, built to attract investment and economic development slaboosvoennyh central regions.


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