category: History

Life and sentiments of political prison and exile in Siberia in 1900 - 1917 years of memories Former Political Prisoners and Exiles.

Contents: ? ?? ?? Enter en s . ????1. Formulation question ??2. Historiographical analysis of the topic. ??3. Review sources ?? I. Siberian exile in the years 1900-1917 ??1. Siberian exile on the eve of reform 12 June 1900 ??2. Law of 12 June 1900 and its value. ??3. The main stages of the history of exile in Siberia in 1900 - 1917 gg. ???? II. Life and mood Siberian Political Prisoners ?? and Exiles in the years 1900-1917. ????1. Legal and financial status of exiles and convicts ??a) The role of police surveillance in the life ??political exile and imprisonment. ??b) Gen political exiles: ??the problem of wages and the housing problem ??c) The situation in prisons Nerchinsk prison in 1907 - 1917 he ??2. Characteristics of the moral situation of exile and imprisonment. . ??a) The problem of revaluation of values and its impact ??the moral status of exiles and polikatorzhan. ??b) The role of learning in the lives of political prisoners Nerchinsk prison ??c) The moral status of political prison and exile ??eve of 1917. ???? Conclusion ?? References ???? ?? ?? ?? ?


1. Raising the question.

history of exile in Siberia abounds in many separate plots, each of which deserves separate consideration. Among these subjects can example, to make such interesting topics as organizing the escape of the exiles from Siberia to the European part of the country and abroad, relationship between political and criminal exiles, the influence of Siberian exile at the post-revolutionary situation in Siberia, inter-factional struggle within Links and hard labor, and so on, each researcher is free to find in the history of exile in Siberia and more new subjects.

Regarding the period under discussion in the scientific development of the theme the following main areas:

1. Elucidation of the reasons and prerequisites for the spread in Siberia ideas of opportunism and conciliation, and their influence on the direction of ideological and organizational disengagement among the exiled revolutionaries.

2. Analysis of the positions of the exiled Social-Democrats and their ideological opponents.

3. Characteristics of research and journalistic activities were in political exile theorists and ideologues of 's Social-Democracy, neonarodnikov, anarchists and nationalists Bund.

4. Coverage of basic forms and directions of the ideological struggle of exiles on a number of software and tactical theoretical questions of the revolutionary movement.

5. Investigation exiled revolutionaries fighting with regionalists, especially on the role of the Siberian political exile in the life of the region, the historical fate of the development of Siberia, etc.

In general, the presentation of ideological and political struggle in exile in Siberia traditionally is expository. In the view of historiography, for many specific historical nature of some works sketchiness, and sometimes simplistic critique of opportunists on the program and tactics of the revolutionary movement [i].

We were allocated a plot on the life and sentiments of Siberian exile and hard labor in the years 1900-1917. It is clear that developing such a subject, particularly to rely on witnesses' memories - Former Political Prisoners and Exiles.

Despite the fact that the theme of exile in Siberia very actively exploited by local researchers, as well as a sufficient number of sources, memoirs, this story turned out to be little affected by their attention. In our opinion, it is not surprising, since the former Exiles and politkatorzhane say little about their revolutionary struggle, focusing to "small," insignificant in terms of party ideology, details.

In his memoirs, written mostly convicts on the organization of life and the internal regulations of penal servitude and exile, relations with the criminal prisoners and prison administration, some internal turmoil within the exile community, and so on. Relations with the will, the actions of the revolutionary organizations, almost no attention. First of all convicts are not interested in the situation in central , and the situation in the nearest prison. For example, katorzhanki Nerchinsk women's prison were active in the clandestine correspondence with prisoners from the prison in Mountain Zerentue, whereas the letter to the European part of or the regional party organizations typically go through censorial control of the prison administration.

this work, we do not claim to exhaustive coverage of the sentiments of the Siberian penal servitude and exile in the period. It is impossible for a number of serious circumstances.

First, it explains the type of sources on which our work. The fact that the use of mere memories of participants and witnesses may only partly show the real situation and not able to fill existing gaps today in the publication of documentary material. Furthermore, it should make allowances for subjectivity in the understanding and evaluation of the events described in the memoirs. At the same time, subjectivity, this reveals we have the identity of the writer.

Secondly, from our work have been virtually excluded subjects related to the active political protest. In our view, the events of 1904 in Yakutsk, Lena-known speeches as well as a series of strikes on the railway should be considered separately. Moreover, some evidence of participants these events for three-dimensional characteristics of these statements is not enough, and there must attract a wider range of sources. At the same time, we looked at some moments of intense struggle for Nerchinsk prison, because they were little to do with politics per se, but rather were caused by the heightened arbitrary prison authorities for "political", but as specific moods political prisoners at that time.

Third, the majority of published memoirs refer to the period 1907-1911 period, which also had influence on the content of our work and gegrafichesky coverage: speaking of the prison, we will use the memories of prison inmates Nerchinsk imprisonment. As for the links, the bulk of sources used by us is devoted to the life of life links the north-east Siberia - Yakutia and Turukhansk edge. In principle, this is easily explained, because usually after a period of penal servitude, ex-convicts were sent to settle in the most remote areas of the Siberian region, including in the Yakutia.

Drawing on memories of Former Political Prisoners and Exiles, we have been tasked to determine how conditions of life in exile and in penal servitude influenced the moral character and social and political attitudes themselves exiles, as well as highlight specific to all before us, period features.

2. Historiographical analysis of the topic

High interest in the history of the Siberian exile and hard labor on the part of professional researchers we meet immediately after the 1917 revolution. However, we must acknowledge that to date not published any work impartially evaluates the value of Siberian exile and hard labor in the history the revolutionary movement in , and certainly not an analysis of the moods, was common among the Exiles and Political Prisoners.

In most cases the emphasis is on the activities of the Bolshevik faction of 's Social-Democracy in the Party building in political exile, organizing performances of exiled Bolsheviks, and so on. Although these works we can learn a lot of reference material help form a comprehensive picture of the Siberian exile, to allocate its main stages. [ii]

Unfortunately, we were greeted with almost no work in detail considering the mood of the exiled to Siberia.

In concrete historical articles published in collections of scientific works, you can still find some information of interest to us.

example, in articles E.Sh. Haziahmetova [iii] and AI Sokolova [iv], there are some serious analysis of the factors in influencing attitudes of political exile and hard labor.

In addition, when writing this work we have been involved, and other work of the scientific school of researchers of the Siberian Links and hard labor that emerged at the Irkutsk State University, actively publishing in mid 1970 - late 1980 gg. Despite the fact that the research part of the work we have relied mainly on the sources, the involvement of specific historical work has clarify some aspects of life penal servitude and exile, little covered in the memoirs we used. For example, the exiled Social-Democrats virtually no mention of inner differences, arguing that those on the merits was not. NA Sherstyannikov [v], by contrast, points to the existing tensions between the Bolshevik and Menshevik factions Social Democrats.

3. Sources Overview

In the first decades after 1917 actively published memoirs of former political prisoners and Exiles. Great work on the collection of the corresponding materials hosted the All-Union Society of Former Political exile-settlers.

In modern historiography, [vi] gives a very positive assessment of its activities. Perhaps the main publication of the society can be considered historical-revolutionary magazine-almanac 'penal servitude and exile ", published from 1921 to 1935, and mainly published memoirs of former exiles and political prisoners. For all the time edition of more than 160 issues of the journal. It should be noted that the theme of exile in Siberia 1900 -1917 gg. the almanac played the leading part. To Moreover, by the editorial board, at least until the 1930's, almost never used ideological correction memoirs. It so we decided to build this building on the work published in the "penal servitude and exile" memories.

In our opinion, the most valuable in the research to be considered memoirs, published in 1920.

They are distinguished by the immediacy of presentation, the almost total absence of ideology and pathos. Moreover, among the memoirs to be found not only the views Social Democrats, but their ideological opponents, as well as former administrators. [vii]

In releases of the 1930's to replace the memoirs of ex-convicts coming articles written by professional historians, that somewhat reduces the the value of the reference publication of the almanac. Researchers are actively working with the sources: the memories themselves exiles and political prisoners, archives Tsarist secret police. Actively analyze the correspondence of the exiles from the European part of and emigration. There is assessment of the role of political parties in the political link. Work is underway to study the statistics set the exact number of those exiled to Siberia for political articles from the European part of country and sentenced within the Siberia. Attempts were made to conduct an accurate count of the number of political. In Later on the research publications' penal servitude and exile "of the 1930's were built following the work of researchers to Siberia.

we used sources can be divided into three categories. First, it is memories concerning the welfare of hard labor. The vast majority of memoirs on the subject related to prisons Nerchinsk prison. With regard to prison, here we have case as the testimony of convicts, both men and politkatorzhanok. Evidence largely overlap, although convicts-men indicate that men Botany Bay was more organized, and, moreover, was subjected to more severe repression from the administration of prisons. [viii] Memoirs same politkatorzhanok more informative in planeosvescheniya organization welfare of prisoners. [ix]

The sources of the second category should include evidence of former exiles. Most we used memories of the exiles associated with the Yakut reference, regardless of whether they were serving it directly to Yakutsk, or in other towns and villages north-east Siberia. In contrast to the memories of convicts, most of which falls in the time period 1907 - 1911 gg, here we have a broader temporal coverage - from the end of the XIX century [x] to the events that determined the post-revolutionary history of Siberia. [xi] The plan would particularly like to highlight the memoirs V. Vilna (Sibiryakova), show the true causes of the transition of a new power in the hands of the SR and the defeat Social Democrats.

A third, auxiliary, the categories we used sources directly memories of Former Political Prisoners, Exiles, and had relation to the repressive system of in the early centuries of people do not belong. Nevertheless, published in the anthology "Penal servitude and link analysis, in particular, the characterization of intercepted letters also helps describe the mood was common at that time in prison and exile. Especially valuable in this regard is the work of AN Cherkunova [xii], carefully analyzed more than thousands of intercepted letters, included in one of the cases Irkutsk Provincial Gendarmerie early 1910-ies.

concluding review of sources, it should be noted that it was unlikely to be used by us to analyze the sources separately, as in many events, facts and conclusions of their authors, intersect. That last fact will help us sfomirovat the most common and reliable picture of the sentiments prevailing in political exile in Siberia in 1900 -1917 years.

I. Siberian exile in the years 1900 -1917

1. Siberian exile on the eve of reform 12 June 1900

12 June 1900 the government decided to reform the Siberian exile. This was preceded by a serious work being done on initiative of the Office of the Chief of the Prison.

imperial command on 16 May 1899 on the establishment of the Commission to develop measures for the abolition of links was recognized that the future direction exiled to Siberia for its settlement does not make sense and harms the edge. Ordinary criminal Link to Siberia with a view to its settlement was declared inappropriate. Much more important for the state becomes poderzhka mass movement in Siberia free people. [xiii]

Effective penalty colonization of Siberia have never been.

Despite that link, and penal servitude in the penal institutions have traditionally occupied the predominant place in the late XIX century approach to problem of reference require careful review.

fact is that with the development of means of communication, the rapid growth of population in Siberia, its bstrorastuschim economic and cultural level, the link was losing its value of heavy deterrent penalties, capable, moreover, a long time to isolate the regime of unwanted people.

For all time of existence for more than two and a half centuries, Siberian exile reformed more than once.

For example, the imperial decree of 15 July 1729 were registered colonization reference purposes and decrees 13 December 1760 and January 17, 1765 has been significantly expanded range of individuals who could be deported. Government failure to provide tolerable conditions for the existence of a large number of Siberian exiles as well as significant difficulties in transmitting exiled to Siberia in 1773 being forced to abandon this practice. However, in 1799 adopted a draft settlement of all exiles, "a midday edge of Siberia."

excessive number of exiles and their negative impact on Siberia again exacerbated the problem of reforming referential system. In 1802 was reduced, and in 1811-1812. and completely abolished the administrative link to the will of the landowners, as well as rural and petty-bourgeois societies. However, gradually link back to the old rules. By 30 years of the XVIII century the annual number of exiled to Siberia amounted to 10 thousand people. Authorities on still could not provide acceptable conditions for the existence of the exiles, nor bind the exiles to the land, nor prevent vagrancy and the growth of criminal offenses.

In 1835 Nicholas I made a proposal to consider the complete abolition of exile in Siberia, but five years of discussion problem came to nothing lead. In 1840?The State Council called for the complete preservation of referential systems noting, however, the need to put in her order. Reforms of the 60 years of the XIX century also contributed to the list of reforms experienced Siberian exile. So, was finally eliminated the practice of reference of the peasants in Siberia by the will of the landowners in 1865 was substantially limited administrative link to sentences and rural petty-bourgeois societies. Again later legislation to lift those restrictions, and various administrative bodies, had the right sent into exile without trial, as well as the courts continued to be sent to Siberia, large groups of exiles.

worked in the years 1871-1872. Commission to review the second chapter of the Penal Code, proposed deleting the reference number of the reprisals for ordinary crimes but has not received the support of the State Council. In 1877-1878, the question was discussed at the Commission on training of prison reform, where the proposal was made to leave the link only for "political" and "religious" criminals. Despite the lifting of links "to live", the largest forensic link to the settlement was abandoned. Audit Siberian prison and references in 1880-1881 gg. forced the Ministry of the Interior finally address this problem seriously. February 26 1888 in the Council of State was filed the bill, the anticipated termination ordinary judicial exile in Siberia, but his performance was considered unfeasible.

Bills 1840, 1865, 1877 and 1888. Restrictions on the ordinary and administrative exile in Siberia again and again showed a permanent crisis referential system.

In the second half of the 90-ies the obvious disastrous overflow Siberia criminals once again led the authorities to continue the discussion of the problem reform of Siberian exile. In 1894 - 1899 years of Siberia to survey the state of penal servitude and exile regularly visited government officials: Head of prison administration, MM Galkin, and AP-Vransky Solomon, as well as the Minister of Justice, NV Ants. Under chairmanship of the last in 1899 created a special commission, which was to develop a bill to remove links. [xiv]

the eve of the reform in 1900, according to the main prison administration in Siberia was concentrated to 310 thousand exiles of all categories, including ssylnokatorzhnyh - 10688 (3,4%), Exiles - 100595 (32.8%), liberated workers - 39683 (12.8%), exiled to live - 9881 (3,2%), administrative exiles - 148418 (48.9%). The total mass of political exiles were less than 1% [xv]

payroll of the exiles have traditionally differed from the actual number of their local registration data - to exile in Siberia was characterized by stable high percentage of runaways. In fact, one third of Siberian exile (around 100 thousand people) was in the "obscure absent. Another third of the Siberian The information provided from a homeless vagabond in existence due to random earnings. About 70 thousand deportees consisted of laborers from the old-timers and wealthy exiles or worked in cities, and approximately 10% of the exiles settled in the land. [xvi]

In recognition of the Chief of the prison administration, it was impossible to contain the exiles under strict government supervision, the old methods of deterrence have been ineffective.

problem repeal links require immediate settlement.

2. Act June 12, 1900 and its value.

March 25, 1900 bill of fundamental reform of referential system was submitted to State Council.

Among other measures, it provides for removal of links "to live" in full and a significant reduction in links "to settlement "in exchange for prison sentences for various periods, or serving sentences of correctional convicts offices. Link" settlement "recognize" an exceptional punishment "for" political "and" religious "crimes. The Commission recognized that in the latter case, reference effectiveness of imprisonment and, moreover, does not make "disorder" in the reference system. [xvii]

Following the approval of the bill by the United departments and the State Council, it was approved by Nicholas II.

As a result, the law abolished the ordinary link and a link to Siberia for placement for vagrancy, and significantly limited the links on sentences societies.

Exiles these categories averaged 85% percent of the total number may still refer to Siberia, and the reform meant a radical change in the entire reference system. At the same time, in full has been retained reference to prison and judicial reference "to settle" for the public (political) and religious crimes. [xviii]

Before enactment proportion of political exiles in the total number was very small, then from 1900 Siberian exile becomes especially in reference to the political.

Later, in 1905-1907. taken any further attempts to restrict references to Siberia. In particular, under the influence of the revolution of 1905 were developed Several bills (on personal integrity, an exceptional situation, and others), which provided for the complete abolition administrative links, and in 1913 proposed to convert the hard labor and to repeal the reference to the settlement as its consequence. However, until aministii 1917, Siberian political exile lived mainly on the legal standards adopted in the late XIX century and the Act of June 12 1900. [Xix]

3. The main stages of the history of the Siberian

links in 1900 - 1917 gg.

Act June 12, 1900 defined the life of the Siberian penal servitude and exile until the amnesty of 1917. This explains why we have chosen the chronological scope of this work - 1900 - 1917gg.

In the period under discussion Siberian exile has gone through a number of distinct phases, which are viewed quite clearly

1. 1900 - 1905 gg. - Fundamental change in the structure of Siberian exile, caused by the Act of June 12, 1900 in socio-political level, this period can be described as "stagnation".

2. 1905 - 1906 years - the peak of socio-political activity, caused by the revolution of 1905.

3. 1906-1907 gg .- recession of the first n revolution. It was during this period was sent to Siberia, most powerful stream of political exiles and convicts

4. 1907-1910 gg .- reaction. The end of this period marks an intensification of repression in for convicts and political ssylnyhyu

5. 1910 - 1914 he .- new revolutionary upsurge.

6. 1914-1917 gg. - First World War [xx]

Each period brought with it new it into the exile society from the European part of . For example, during the reaction, in 1907 - 1910 gg. in link sent a large number of professional revolutionaries who have been convicted after the 1905 revolution. [xxi] And yet, we have represented the division largely suspended. The term of penal servitude and exile usually was too great to be able to fit into any of these periods. After falling on hard labor in 1907, many political convicts were in prison until the amnesty of 1917, besides the mood of exiles and convicts in a much more influenced by close aides, unchanged from year to year, and developments in the European part of came only in the form of weak echoes.

1900 taken as a point of the report, because this year was held on the transformation of ordinary links Siberia on mainly political, but in March 1917 was an amnesty. In the research part of our work, we beg adhere to rigid time frame, because in 1900, and in 1917 the mood of the exiles were generally similar. Our task will be to to show how these attitudes affect the lives and life polliticheskih exiles and convicts.

Life and mood Siberian Political Prisoners

and Exiles in the years 1900-1917.

1. Legal and financial situation of the exiles

and political prisoners

a) The role of police surveillance in life

political exile and penal servitude

Exiles, administrative exiles and politkatorzhane legally have definite differences.

Thus, life Exiles regulated "by the Charter of the exiles" from 1890 (with some modifications the Charter in 1906). Exiles were deprived of all property rights, property, "personally acquired rights" and so on. They could not be in the public service, did not have the right to acquire ownership of the property, they are prohibited from teaching and legal activities. All rights may be returned only ten years after the liberation of the settlement. [Xxii] Exiles were severely limited in the possibilities of movement, absence without leave was penalized. Attempted escape within the Siberian relied translate into a more remote location or imprisonment for up to two years for the escape of the European part of the country -- convicts from 3 to 6 years. [xxiii]

administrative exiles all the rights are not denied, but were given under strict police surveillance at all times links.

comprehensive system of police supervision greatly complicate the lives of all exiled to Siberia. For exiles formalized police officers who were required to prevent escapes, as well as monitor way of life of the Trust. Police surveillance was declared the measure "to prevent crimes against the existing political order" and set over those "harmful to public peace, settled on residence in a particular place on up to 5 years [xxiv]

the field, for organizing the supervision of political exiles meet provincial and regional administration, the county superintendent and becoming a police officer. Activities exiles controlled secret police control, security offices and investigative points.

AN Cherkun analyzing police intercepted correspondence of political exiles, reveals a number of interesting moments in the life of exile in Siberia 1910-ies.

In particular, he points to the fact that the exiles themselves are often unaware that police surveillance includes not only control so that their wards did not dare to escape and did not lead prohibited activities, but actually all-out test letters. Researchers have analyzed more than a thousand letters, intercepted by the Irkutsk province Gendarme Administration in 1911-1912.

on Relations gendarme bodies between themselves revealed that tactic against exemption letters used different: sometimes with the letters only take a copy or a photograph, a letter is sent to the destination, sometimes are selected the letter itself in the post office, and then the recipient and the sender is usually searched, sometimes the wait, when the letter is received, and after in fact followed the search.

often and author of the letter and the addressee of the time sure that everything goes well correspondence established, but it was not until as long as the gendarmerie did not recognize the need to set a limit correspondence, because everything interesting out of it already taken. [xxv]

not suspecting that his letter might fall into the wrong hands, one of the exiles, wrote: "In general, letters misunderstandings can not be, because here post very respectable audience, and are afraid of us. "[xxvi]

discussion of shoots from a link given in the letters a lot of places, but too greater openness and lack any kind of conspiracy was usually brought to the fact that most shoots were doomed to failure: to put under observation, those who dared to escape, were transferred from place to place, etc.

In a letter from a. Znamenskoye Verkholensk district of Irkutsk province in Kiev in December 1911 reads as follows: "My mind was working on, before the month of July to evaporate away completely ... I I think, and your head is working on this, and you find yourself promoting me. In any case, no later than July 1, but better than before. Needed Of course, the two conditions: the money and passport, a good passport, a living person. Now, if my letter gets where not necessary - provided me Kurensky County [more remote district of the Irkutsk province - MG], and even farther away. But how else to write? Do not encrypt all this. Incidentally, running away is easy, but easy rise to the "border", ie, in Chelyabinsk. It is safer to run through Vladivostok and Japan but much more expensive ". [xxvii]

After this letter is the discussion of specific moments of preparation for the escape. Established that the sender fears have come true, and he soon, in fact, was sent to the county Kurensky.

And yet, for the most part, in the intercepted letters were expressed regarding domestic exiles device links the problem of wages and internal friction in environment of political exiles.

Despite the censorship, the letter was rightly considered the only possible means of communication with the outside world for ssylnoposlentsev, and for political prisoners. For example, former katorzhanki Maltsev women's prison in their memoirs repeatedly said that the correspondence to them played a very significant role. It is curious that the correspondence was conducted as a "will" and prisoners from male Zerentuyskoy convict prison is located next door. Letters there is usually transmitted through the criminal women, goes beyond the fence and had a meeting with men from Zerentuya. In of great help prisoners doctor Zerentuyskoy convict prison, came to see with visits maltsevityanok, who sympathized with the "political" and assisted deliveries of letters. [xxviii]

From a political hard-labor camp, everything was much simpler than with life in the settlements. Police surveillance exiles had on them is very depressing effect, since in essence was invisible: the exiles could not predict when to them descend with a search warrant, and how their activities may be regarded as anti-state.

In prison, if allowed, and "freedom", he always had time and properly prepare for the visit of the authorities.

Former katorzhanki Maltsev prison recall that "as soon as the mountains appear to Zerentuyskoy three horses with the head Zabello prison or another some newcomers superiors in prison rose trevoga.My so used to hide all the illegal "freedom" that did not pass and five minutes, all painted in gray color and state-owned prison has zavinchenny view. "[xxix] Assuming

liberties, authorities still were on the alert, and regularly conducted searches. However, only in 1910, after the visit of the Inspector of Prison Management Sementovskogo, head Maltsev prison Pavlovsky, a liberal, was transferred to Kadan, smnilis and heads of other convicts in prisons. Since that time, the physical "Screwing" Nerchinsk prison. In many ways the life of political exile depended on the personal qualities of administrators, a change which is often changed and degree of police surveillance of "political". Mode at hard labor is also determined to a greater extent by the fact of who was the warden. He defined a mood of younger Administration. Nerchinsk At one prison were spread in an area 500-600 kilometers prison chiefs were "animals and butchers and a number -- "Good-natured liberals old Siberian temper stored in its relation to the" politics "traditions and skills given to them by the education of older generations exiles and convicts-revolutionaries. "[xxx] MA Spiridonov testifies: "At Kadainskoy prison near the guardhouse stood a kit with brine, where urinated flexible twigs for flogging; on Kazakovskaya goldfields criminal, excised birch, coming to the assistant with a request to treat fear zagnoivshuusya from crashed thorns got back in response: "not in order whipped. "In Algachinskoy prison policy took poison or razbvali his head against the wall. At the same time in the Gorno-Zerentuyskoy and Maltsev prisons to 1909 - 1910 gg. With decent bosses prisoners of all categories, you must have at least gave them the opportunity to live with the preservation of human dignity, to engage in leisure science and development of its vnutriobschestvennoy life. ?Manners at hard labor in general in the early years (1906-1909) have been patriarchal, and sometimes fierce-looking head, ferocity of which was -inspired Chita District, "settle down" and grew roots in the political team at the glory, while leaving themselves an integral part of quality only the ability to steal. Repression here and there in the prison were first?sporadic. "[xxxi]

As we see, a police surveillance politkatorzhanami and exiles played a very important role in influencing all aspects of life in Siberian exile, beginning with the legal, moral and finishing component.

b) Gen political exiles:

problem of earnings and the housing issue.

administrative exiles could not conduct educational and social activities, serve publishing houses, libraries and similar institutions. There was a significant limitation on the medical and legal practices, they were forbidden to leave his settled, with the seats. [xxxii]

In fact, the local administration often turned a blind eye to minor infractions. For example, the peak requirements exiles often practiced private lessons, which helped them secure a fairly tolerable existence in exile. Thus, F. Radzilovskaya, released in 1909, the Malcev freestyle team, shows that in the freestyle team maltsevityanki first to be able to earn their own children's education by the prison administration, and through this to survive the winter. [xxxiii] In spite of the prohibitions, in the 1910-s years Exiles Yakut links to take in hand Yakutsk City library - perhaps the main cultural value of Yakutsk. With Liberal AA Semenov and some other vowels Yakut city council, to head the library became MV Nikolayev wife of the exiled SRs, and its zametitelem was appointed the wife of the Social-Democrat Vilna. Thus, the Yakut exiles simultaneously received and earnings, and the legal possibility to work with the public. [Xxxiv]

himself Vilensky devoted himself entirely to research into the Yakut edge. Investigated the economy, publishes the magazine industry in Yakutia, and so on. Actively working with local authorities. In parallel, its newspaper Lenski edge "produced and VI Nikolaev, with financial support of the Yakut liberal AA Semenov. The newspaper that was around him, kiss hill "within squabbles, resolutions and all the conflicts and struggle over it, perhaps, is a separate page in the history of the Yakut links.

Administration knew that before her "disfranchised", ie exile-settlers, deprived rights to such activities, but looking at everything through your fingers. [xxxv]

If you served in places of exile in remote provinces of European and the administration really embarrassed by the exiles in the classroom intelligent difficulty in accurately performing the relevant requirements for fear of surprise inspections, in Siberia, and especially its outlying areas, the situation was much better. The need for intelligent power was so great and the possibility of political influence of exiles on the local population, for the most part composed of foreigners, so it is unlikely that chiefs ceded to the demands of life, and was forced to welcome the educational, medical and research activities ssylnoposele

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