category: Biographies

Karol Joseph (John Paul II) Wojtyla

Karol Yozef Voityla

18.05.1920 years [Wadowice, Poland] - 02.04.2005 year [Vatican], Poland

Life Karol Wojtyla was filled with tragic and joyful events before his proclamation of the Pope: he soon lost his parents, survived the Second world war, the rule of Hitler and Stalin, the communist occupation of Poland; was a scholar, poet, priest, actor, professor, in his youth became bishop, and soon - the archbishop and cardinal. Defining the principles of his life make a sacrifice to God and service to the Church.


In 1920 was born Karol Jozef Wojtyla. His father (a lieutenant in the Polish army) then turned 41 years old, mother - 36, and brother - 14. At the age of 8 years lost his mother, and 12 - his brother. Karol well at school. As extraordinarily gifted 14-year-old Wojtyla began an acting career in school drama, led by school Mari society. In the same year made his first pilgrimage to Czestochowa, and in 1935 participated in military exercises. In 1938, Carol received the sacrament of Confirmation, at the same time received his secondary education.

Admission to the university and the beginning of the Second World war

In 1939 Karol entered the Philosophical Faculty of the Jagiellonian University and with his father moved to Krakow. At the same time continuing his acting activity in the experimental theater troupe "Studio 38". In same academic year, becoming a member of the Student Society of the Blessed Eucharist and Mercy.

When in 1939 started World War II, Karol Wojtyla was soph. Jan Tiranovsky - tailor, an adherent Carmelites, familiarized him with the writings of St.. John Christ and St.. Teresa of Avila. That time of Mari spirituality was sufficiently formed. It defines rest of his life.

Karol Wojtyla continues to serve in an underground theater and avoids the conclusion and deportation only because he worked in a stone quarry. After death father in 1941, shared his home with his family Mieczyslaw Kotlyazhika - founder Theater of the Living Word (Rhapsody).

Preparation for the priesthood

In Wojtyla in 1942 transferred to the chemical factory in Solvay. Simultaneously he became a student of the theological faculty of Jagiellonian University, where secretly preparing for the priesthood. His work in SALW and theological shtudirovanie continued until the accident in early 1944, when he was hit by a car and he was forced to lie for a month in hospital.

In late summer of 1944 Karol Wojtyla, and a few seminarians were transferred to the residence of the Archbishop. He takes the veil and goes to school Cantor, becomes deputy prime minister "fraternal assistance. In this position stays until April 1946. In the same year he graduated from school and received cantorial poddyakonskie, deacon, and in November - the priestly blessing.

Home service: student and teacher

In In 1946 almost simultaneously after the ordination of a priest he leaves Poland and the beginning he studied theology at the University Andzhelikum in Rome. In 1947 Wojtyla receives a bachelor's degree in theology and visit France, Belgium and Holland. In 1948 he published his doctorate, Wojtyla returned to Poland and begins priestly activities.

In 1949 returned to Cracow, to the university's youth and workers protection health in the parish of St.. Florian, and in 1950 began to prepare their first publication. In 1951, Karol Wojtyla takes leave to prepare for teaching at the university.

C 1953 Wojtyla teaches social ethics at the university, but soon Communist government closes the theological faculty and school forced to relocate to the Krakow seminary. At the same time he offered to teach Catholic University of Lublin, where the end of 1956 Wojtyla headed Department of Ethics.

bishop, archbishop and cardinal

Large changes in the life of Karol Wojtyla took place after he became bishop and in 1958 - assistant to the Archbishop of Krakow.

In October 1962, taking part in the first session of the Second Vatican Council as one of its youngest members. In 1963, during the closing second session, he was appointed Archbishop, Metropolitan of Krakow. After the end of the third session of the Council and during the preparations for the Fourth final session of the new archbishop is working on "Schema XIII, Gaudium et Spes "(On the Church in the modern world). During the session of the Polish bishops issued their letter of reconciliation, addressed to German bishops, saying: "We forgive and ask forgiveness".

C then Archbishop Wojtyla carried out in practice, the decrees of the Council and managed his diocese in the difficult conditions created by the communist government Poland. One of his first steps was then decided to move the icon Our Lady of Czestochowa in his diocese, where for a year, she exhibited for worship in 120 parishes in the constant presence Archbishop, who a few months earlier was brought to the dignity of Cardinal.

Cardinal active travel: visits the Polish community in different countries, evharistiynye congresses pomestye synods, lecturing, speaking at scientific meetings, participates in pravlyaschih synods, which have since been held in Rome every five years and whose purpose - the development and execution of the decrees of the Second Vatican Council. Few Cardinals got a rich international experience in such a short period of time.

After the death of Pope Paul VI and the brief reign of Pope John Paul I October 16, 1978 of Cardinal Karol Jozef Wojtyla was elected 264 th Pope.

Biography of Karol Wojtyla Pope John Paul II. As was

Karol Jozef Wojtyla was born on Tuesday, May 18, 1920, in a small town Wadowice in southern Poland. A native of the common people, who grew up in the mountain areas of Southern Poland, Wojtyla knew people involved in farming and lived in their huts.

First personal tragedy waylaid Karol Wojtyla April 13, 1929, when age of forty-five years old his mother died. Karol five weeks was was nine years old, and he walked in the third grade of elementary school. In initial Carol went to school at the age of six years, and from the first day of training he became receive excellent grades in the Polish language, religion ( "very good"), arithmetic, drawing, singing (very good), physical education, diligence and behavior. The school was located on the second floor and attic of the building vadovitskogo Poviat Court, not far from the church and a few steps from the house to enter. Reigned in her incredible tightness, classrooms were overcrowded, and the boys during breaks and free time to just have fun on the street in front church.

In childhood name was Karol Lolus, and it is invented by the mother baby name preserved to this day: during private meetings at the Vatican exactly appeal to Pope few of his closest friends. Emily is very proud of her youngest son - Even when he was still a baby. Frantisek Zadora, then neighbor Wojtyla, recalls how his mother Emilia said:

?Here see, my Lolus will be a great man. " The house Wojtyla always prevailed religious atmosphere at the entrance to the apartment, which led a steep steel staircase ever there was a small vessel of consecrated water, dipped his fingers in which each entrance to the apartment and out of it, was baptized. The walls were holy image, and is induced in the living room altar, who prayed in the morning all family. In the evenings and on Sunday the father or mother read aloud to the Bible, that in those time was a rarity in Galicia. In the house regularly read the prayers, there were all the church holidays and respected positions.

Mother taught Loleka baptized, the father Karol Wojtyla also remembers as "a man extremely religious. When the age of ten years, the future pope served during the Mass - his mother had already died - Carol has made a son remarked that he does not pray to the Holy Spirit "properly". "He taught me how to pray - recalled John Paul II, - and it was important a spiritual lesson. " More than half a century, this prayer is reflected in the papal encyclical on the Holy Spirit.

Karol Jozef Wojtyla was baptized June 20, 1920 priest Frantisek Jacques, military chaplain in the chapel of the church vadovitskoy which are off-divsheysya another side of the street on which stood his house. Godfather of the future Pope was one of a relative of his mother, Joseph Kuchmerchik, godmother - sister Emilia Maria Vyadrovska. In the parish book was written in Latin: baptisatus est Carolus Josephus.

Interesting fact: in the book, where there are all past sacred deysva for Karol Wojtyla was given a whole page. That is, after his baptism, Frantisek Jacques left blank sheet, and the following records kept on another worksheet. Thus, After many years the priests celebrated all events proishedshie with Karol Voitylov.

On character formation Howl-rear heavily influenced by personal tragedy, suffering and loneliness, has not yet reached twenty-one years, he lost nearly entire family: his sister died in infancy, the mother he lost in eight years, the elder brother in the eleven, and her beloved father - three months before twenty-first birthday.

These loss of family formed Wojtyla as a man and as a clergyman. He often speaks of them in private conversations, especially the minutes of terrible loneliness after the death of his father. He himself several times into contact with death.

Friends, who know Wojtyla has long child, believe that prayer and meditation always a major source of his physical and mental strength, as well as amazing ability to recover energy - despite the murderous Vatican schedule of life and exhausting trip around the world. As usual standards, the burden is clearly too large for a man of that age.

Tendency to the humanities manifested by Karol Wojtyla early, still in school. Teachers remembered that he was especially fond of the lessons of foreign language, religion and philosophy. After high school, Carol, along with his father moved to Krakow and entered the university, where he began studying philosophy and philology. He studied there only two years, but the university atmosphere had a great influence on future pope. In 18 years, Carol has been actively involved in the drama group, attends classes in rhetoric and writing poetry. Not so long ago "Nezavisimaya Gazeta published a n translation of the play entitled" In the shop jeweler, written Voitylov in 1939, the play anticipates the subtitle: "Meditation on the Sacrament of marriage, sometimes dove drama" ... In all imperfections of translation can guess the author of this play "an apologist for the family" loving person and love hard thinker. About the same time Karol wrote a cycle of poems entitled "Ballads of the Wawel Cathedral?.

14 May 1938 Wojtyla passed his final exams. He received the highest ratings ( "Excellent") on the Polish, Greek, German, in Latin, history, problems of modern Poland, philosophy and physical education. May 27, along other students the school the next pope received a diploma from the school. To get the highest grade in Latin, he had the first question responsible for forty minutes, the second fifteen, and the third of seven - such a system admission exam was intended to convince teachers that the student has Latin as well as the Polish language (or almost as well).

autumn 1939 Poland was occupied by Nazi troops, and religious and cultural life of the country came to a standstill, at least at the official level. Though there was an underground university, in which Karol Wojtyla for some time continued to study. But by November 1, 1940 for it just begins another life: to help sick father, he comes to working hard quarry Zakshoveke, near Krakow, but continues to engage in literature, wrote the play "King of the Spirit, working in an underground organization, harboring Krakow's Jews and transporting them to other countries.

Factory "Solvay" used limestone from quarries in the south of Dembnikov Zakruvke, and it was there in September 1940, Wojtyla began employment history ordinary worker. Huge stone blocks knocked off the rocks with dynamite, and then transported to the narrow gauge railway wagons to the factory, who was in Faletskom Bor - industrial district of Krakow. Wojtyla worked the factory for four years.

Father Karol Wojtyla died in February 1941, when Carol was 20 years old. In free minutes of the next pope read religious works. One of the first such works a treatise on the perfect service to the Holy Virgin Mary ", written in the early XVIII century Ludwig Maria Grignon de Montforom, a priest from Brittany, who was later canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. Youthful Karol holy reverence of the Virgin Mary in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, and reading this book in the blue-cover subsequently laid the basis of the cult of Our Lady Mother.

prayed he was on his way to work in the church on Dembnikah, prayed at the factory, he prayed in old wooden church in Faletskom Bor near the factory "Solvay", in road to the cemetery and over the grave of his father, and prayed at home. Most workers Carol treated with respect and admiration. They called him a "student" or "our little priest" and often allowed him to rest, saying: "You already worked today, relax, read, eat something ?.

In October 1942 Karol enrolled in courses at the Faculty of Theology Jagiellonian University. These courses - in violation of Hitler's orders Cessation of religious education - led the archbishop of Krakow, Cardinal Adam Sapieha. Two years later, Karol Wojtyla became a seminarian.

13 October 1946 Cardinal Wojtyla devoted Sapieha in San subdiakona (the San was abolished by Paul VI), and a week later - a deacon. On the same day, October 20, Wojtyla formally ask for the sacraments of initiation, confirming a oath that he was fully aware of responsibilities, which assumes, and that makes it "absolutely on the goodwill?.

1 November, at All Saints' Day, Cardinal Sapieha in his private chapel dedicated Karol Wojtyla in the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church. On the same day Krakow paying homage to the victims of the concentration camp at Auschwitz, the dust which was buried in the cemetery Rakovitskom. His

Karol Wojtyla first Mass celebrated in the crypt of St. Leonard in Wawel Cathedral among the sarcophagi of Polish kings and national heroes. Witness this event was a priest Figlevich. Then Carol served three quiet Mass for the souls of the mother, father and brother. They were held on November 2, and They attended all the members of the Theater Rhapsody ", then in the house of one of the Friends hosted a reception. His

following worship Wojtyla spent in a church in Dembnikah. Then he refused to place the teacher in the university. November 11 in the house of his friends, Kwiatkowski, Carol christened their daughter. It was the first baptism, which had young priest. In the parish church of St. Anne's book says that the girl christened Carolus Wojtyla Neopresbyter.

autumn 1946 Karol Wojtyla is sent to the Eternal City and goes to the "Angelicum" (Dominican University of St. Thomas). In 1948 he defended his thesis there entitled "Question of faith in St. John of the Cross ".

Returning Poland, about a year he spent in the village Negovitse, where he served as assistant prior. Then he went to Krakow, in the Parish of St.. Floriana - here he had work primarily with university students. In 1953, Fr. Karol Wojtyla began to teach ethics and moral theology, first at the theological Faculty of the Jagiellonian University and then at the Catholic University in Lublin. The fifties marked in the life of the Pope's intense scientific activities: during this time he has written over 300 articles, mainly on Christian ethics. In 36 years, Karol Wojtyla became a professor at the Institute of Ethics Lublin. This, however, did not prevent him from practicing sports, traveling, communicate with friends. Note that Pope Pius XII elevates it to episcopal dignity, caught on. Wojtyla Kayak trip! .. It was July 1958 at age 38 he became the youngest bishophistory Poland.

In 1962 Wojtyla once again went to Rome, this time - to take part in the work of Vatican II.

Karol Wojtyla was ordained a bishop Sept. 28, 1958 in the Wawel Cathedral. As usual, he had his own concept of the celebration. He insisted that the many believers assembled some elements of a long and complex ceremony, explained the special commentator. However, more traditional in their views Bazyak archbishop, who was triumph, did not agree with this proposal. Wojtyla chose as low miter instead of high, very majestic, preferred by the majority bishops.

Karol Wojtyla was appointed by Pope Archbishop of Cracow Metropolitan Dec. 30, 1963 year ceremony classes of Wawel Cathedral on 3 March 1964. The future pope was forty-three years.

29 May, eleven days after his forty-seventh birthday, Wojtyla learned that Paul VI appointed him cardinal. June 26, 1967 Cracow Archbishop, together with twenty-six other prelates in the Sistine Chapel received the cardinal's title during one of the greatest ceremonies, which ever held in the Catholic Church. The next day, after lunch Twenty-seven new cardinals were with Paul VI High Mass St. Peter's Square

election of Pope

In 18 hours 18 minutes Cardinal Villa said that the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church was Karol Wojtyla of Krakow, and then approached him and asked, in Latin: "Do you Agree??

Wojtyla did not hesitate. "This is the will of God, - he answered - agree?.

rang applause. Stove Cesare Tassie released into the sky a cloud of white smoke. It told the world that he was elected Pope, but his name still remains unknown. The waiting in suspense to St. Peter's Square believers Night fell.

must say that the Cardinal Villa was asked to announce that it is Polish subject became the new pope. His friends said that on the way to the balcony, with which he was to announce the news, the cardinal asked to repeat several times name of the Pope:

"How there was his name? In? What a wretched language. "

Taking in deference to his predecessor, the name John Paul II, Karol Wojtyla was two hundred and sixty third successor of St. Peter and the two hundred and sixty fourth Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, the largest and most old church organization in the world. How

Pope, he also became the Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, Pontifex Maximus, in whose hands is concentrated highest judicial authority over the Church, Patriarch of the West, Primate of Italy, Archbishop-Metropolitan of the Roman Province, the head of the Vatican State and Servant of the servants of God. Now to him it was necessary to apply "His Holiness" or less formally "Holy Father?.

In age of fifty-eight years of being in good shape Polish cardinal having an increase of almost one hundred and eighty centimeters, became the youngest pope since 1846 year and the first Pope from a foreign country in 1523. John Paul II did not pull with order to show the Cardinals, and soon the whole world that, as head of the Church, he is going to be quite different than its predecessors.

Rising headed the Catholic Church, Karol Wojtyla broke for centuries formed the image of Papal. He ran a shoe on mountain trails, worked on simulators, swam in the pool, playing tennis, skiing. With pastoral visits pope visited many countries in all parts of the world. Many

making to upgrade the image of the Catholic Church, Pope John Paul II remained adamant in preaching the principles that, in his view, constitute moral foundation of human civilization. He favored a categorical prohibition of abortion, artificial insemination, divorce, against the use contraception, the ordination of women in the priesthood, a dignity.

Nightmare shots were made in John Paul II at St. Peter's Square in Wednesday afternoon, May 13, 1981, a Turkish gunman, a distance of only three and a half meters.

Bullet of powerful devyatimillimetrovogo Browning came to the Pope in the abdomen and held in few millimeters from the aorta. If she had hurt her, to save the Pope failed be. Bullet, thankfully, over, and other vital organs. Unless for five hours and twelve minutes, while in the clinic Agostinho Gemelli, located within twenty minutes drive from the place of attack, surgeons performed complex operation, the Pope was in critical condition.

John Paul II was taken to St. Peter's Square a few minutes after the He was struck by one of the two bullets shot by Mehmet Ali Agdzhoi in the presence of twenty thousand gathered at the weekly general audience with pilgrims and tourists. John Paul II was then in his "Popemobile" and he was wounded lower standing on the sidewalk offender.

Pope insisted on a personal meeting with Ali Agdzhoi. One of the cardinal said the pope long time sitting with his hand covering his face with a terrorist, saying something Ali Agdzhoi. When he came out of the camera, then his face bright with tears.

In first anniversary of the assassination attempt, John Paul II went to Fatima, to thank the Mother of God for the salvation of his life and to entrust the altar bullet hit him. The bullet was later mounted in gold, adorned diamond crown of the Virgin Mary. Pierced by a bullet, bloody stole, which was on the Pope minute attempt, he donated the Black Madonna of Czestochowa.

C years his health deteriorated, he had to give active sports, but he maintained an active commitment to pastoral activity. Largely because of the position taken by John Paul II, Catholic Church adopted a landmark decision, such as the rehabilitation of Galileo Galileo or penance for centuries of persecution of the Jewish people. Following

the injury, the Pope attacked new troubles. While in his suburban villa, he stepped on the hem of his cassock, and, falling, broke his arm. As a result, the right his hand was almost lost mobility. John Paul 2 was joking about this:

"to bless and be with his left hand"

In 90 years of new injury - fracture of neck of the hip joint, that for many its means complete immobility. Pope suffered six operations and once again became walk, limping on his right leg.

Many who knew my father, said that on top resented him for being in interviews, he was always writing something. He seemed absorbed in work and not listens to his interlocutors, but my father from birth had a wonderful memory and could do two things at once. Injury and trauma have not broken his spirit. Even during long flights and trips, he continued his work on the books.

In late 20 th century, John Paul 2 hit serious illness - a disease Parkinson's disease. Nevertheless, the Pope continues to be the head of the Roman Catholic Church, steadfastly enduring all the trials which fall to his lot.


Catholics around the world have been orphaned

Bishop Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, successor of St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, highest priest of the universal church (Pontifex Maximus), the patriarch of the West, Primate of Italy, Archbishop-Metropolitan of the Roman province, the head of the Vatican State and servant of servants of God - this the official title for 26 of half years wore Karol Jozef Wojtyla, known worldwide as the Pope John Paul II.

264 th Pope was the second in the history of the Roman Catholic priest, who occupied the Holy See more than 26 years. In him it has only Pius IX, lived in the second half of last century. Pius IX ruled the church for 32 years - from 1846 to 1878. The words "first" and "most" in general often appeared next to the name of Pope John Paul II. He became the first Slav pope, after the Holy See in within 455 years occupied by the Italians. In addition, he became the youngest pope since 1846. Pontiff visited more than 120 countries, it has become the most traveling pope. Communicate freely with world leaders and residents of other of the head of the Vatican allowed the knowledge of eight languages.

from the rectory to the head of the Holy See

Karol Jozef Wojtyla was born May 18, 1920 in the town of Wadowice in southern Poland. The future pope grew up in fairly humble circumstances - his father was a wealthy officer in the Polish army, and his mother worked as a teacher. How to write his biographers, Wojtyla family was very religious - in the house regularly prayed, celebrated all holy days and observe the positions. As a child, Karol called Lolek - it name for his son came up with Emilia Wojtyla. Interestingly, it has not been forgotten until end of his life. That's already turned to the Pope his closest friends. According to one of the neighbors Wojtyla, Emilia was confident that her youngest son will become a "great man". However

she did not see even the first of its success - it is not, when Carol was not a nine years. Even as an adult, Wojtyla devoted to her poem, which so and called - "My mother." This was not the first hill, which is the future Pope had suffered in childhood and later in their teens. 21 years Karol Wojtyla lost almost all relatives: his sister died in infancy, brother died of scarlet fever at the age of 27 years and three months before twenty-first birthday of Karol his father died. According to John himself Paul II, his father once taught him "an important spiritual lesson." "He taught me how to pray" - The Pope recalled the day when his father gave him, then another 10-year-old boy, the remark that he did not prays to the Holy Spirit "properly". Subsequently Wojtyla often mention of their deceased loved ones in private conversations.

Returning to school age Karol, it should be noted that even in elementary school, and then gymnasium of his apparent penchant for the humanities, in particular language, religion and philosophy. In addition, in the same period, he interested in literature and theater. In the theater, organized by the students school, high and elegant Karol Wojtyla, who had the to the same beautiful voice, was assigned to many roles. The future pope even one time seriously thought over a career as a professional actor. A trained Wojtyla to the theater teacher school Mieczyslaw Kotlazhik, in whose house Karol spent a lot of time conversations. In 1979, in Krakow, Pope John Paul II remembered him: "Mieczyslaw Kotlazhik felt that my calling is the word, and theater, and Lord Jesus believed that kapelanstvo ".

Drama Wojtyla continued his art, and during training at the Faculty Literature and Philosophy of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, where he was with his father moved after school. Here Wojtyla participated in the performances of the troupe "Studio 38". The same time he was engaged in literary work, in particular, wrote plays, poetry, spoken at poetry readings. Example, aware of his 1939 play "The bench jeweler" with the subtitle "Meditation on the Sacrament of marriage, sometimes dove drama. Approximately Then he wrote a cycle of poems entitled "Ballads of Wawel Cathedral ". Already

In those years Wojtyla classmates noticed that he was not the same as others. On the door his dorm room, even hung a sign with a humorous inscription "Karol Wojtyla - the holy novice. "Even in 1938, Carol became a member of Student Society of the Holy Eucharist and charity. However

University Wojtyla then failed to finish - the fall of 1939 Poland was occupied by Hitler's troops. Some time employment continued in secret, but in October 1940 Karol leaves the university and to help hard sick father, arrives at the stone quarry workers in Zakshoveke. Work was needed not only to provide for themselves - it would allow avoid arrest and deportation to Germany. Parallel Wojtyla continued engaged in literature, played in amateur theater-studio "Rhapsody", and also worked in the underground Catholic organization, which secretly helped Jews to leave the country.

Free Karol Wojtyla devoted time reading religious books and a lot of praying. In November 1941 Karol transferred to work at chemical plant "Solvay". According to biographers, the workers also found a distinct type nature Wojtyla and with respect for him as "our little priest. "In October 1942 Karol entered the underground spiritual seminary in Krakow. At the same time, he resumed training at theological Faculty of the Jagiellonian University, which functioned under Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha, archbishop of Krakow, in violation of Hitler's orders to cease religious education. 1944 almost proved fatal to the future of the papacy - Karol Wojtyla hit by a car. After the accident, he spent a month in hospital and after discharge in work has not returned. At that time, Wojtyla decided that devote their lives religion.

More during the third year of study at the theological faculty, it adopted the veil and Cantor came to school. Graduated in 1946, he took poddyache, and then dyache dedication. In November 1946, Cardinal Sapieha ordained Wojtyla in San priest. To do this, Karol, not imagining that once he had to become pope, confirmed under oath that he fully understands what the duties takes, and that makes it "absolutely on the goodwill". From that time, keep a record book in the parish church of St. Anne for 11 November 1946. It states that the daughter of the family Kwiatkowski christened Carolus Wojtyla Neopresbyter.

In end of 1946 the young priest on the advice of Cardinal Sapieha went to Rome, where he enrolled in the "Angelicum" - Dominican University of St. Thomas. In 1947 he received a licentiate in theology, after which he visited France, Belgium and Holland, where he conducted services for Polish immigrants. In June 1948 year, Wojtyla returned to Poland, where completed work on its first doctoral dissertation on "The metaphysical and psychological nature of belief the writings of St. Juan de la Cruz. "Jagiellonian University awarded priest, doctor of theology degree.

Returning in Poland, Wojtyla served a year in the parish vicar of the village Negovits, and then in the parish of St. Florian Krakow, where friends with the university students. In 1953 this led him to the theological faculty of the same Jagiellonian University as a teacher, where he taught a course on social ethics. At the same time defended Wojtyla second doctorate, in philosophy -- "Possible ways of constructing a system of Christian ethics on the basis of beliefs Max Scheler. "Soon, the communist authorities have closed theological faculty, and training had to be moved to Krakow seminary. At the same time Wojtyla offered lectures at Lublin Catholic University, where in late 1956 he headed the Department of Ethics. Student young father Wojtyla loved and respected. In his lectures, audiences usually were filled to overflowing.

In fifties, Wojtyla's father also worked hard scientific activities. Since that time, preserved more than 300 of his articles, in which he discoursed on Christian ethics. In 1953, Father Wojtyla received his Doctor of moral theology at the theological faculty of Jagiellonian University, and three years later became a professor at the Institute of Ethics at Lublin. Same time he was engaged in literary work. Poems he published in the Catholic newspaper Tygodnik powszechny and journal Znak under pseudonyms Andrzej plain text (the character of the novel Parandowski "The sky is on fire") and Stanis

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