category: History

Tomb of Ivan the Terrible and his sons

In 1963-1965 years in the Kremlin's Archangel Cathedral performed the autopsy Tombs Tsar Ivan the Terrible and his sons - Fyodor and Ivan. Ivan the Terrible himself during his lifetime bequeathed to bury themselves in dyakonnike altar - the sanctuary of the cathedral, apparently wanting emphasize its special role of the first n tsar-autocrat. Above the tomb Ivan the Terrible is made in the beginning of XX century brass casing with a cover and name, under it - brick tomb, under it - carved from a single limestone sarcophagus, in a semicircular head and a few growing Accordingly, the provisions shoulders of the deceased. The sarcophagus of white stone slab closed, where the beautiful lettering XVII century inscription - the name of the buried and the date his life and death. Near - sarcophagi its previously buried his son Ivan and his son Fedor. These were the last representatives of the genus Ivan Kalita, who ruled the n land for 300 years. Home Kalita proud of his ancestry, which they deduced from the legendary Rurik, in 1598 with the death of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich This kind of broke ... Many

events in the life of Ivan IV, the state of his health in recent years and the reason death is still unclear, although written about this very much. Historians once , even arguing about the date of death, the terrible king, as the record fairly scantily say that the king died March 19, 1584. A chronicle of Pskov calls the date of his death on March 18. Before the last date considered erroneous, but on the tombstone of the sarcophagus specify the day on 18 March: Ivan the Terrible died in evening, and his passing has spread only on the next day.

Died He suddenly, in a fit of rage, which is deliberately caused by one of his approximate. In the "Notes" English nobleman D. Garseya said that for playing chess (or checkers) Ivan the Terrible suddenly "became weak and fell backwards. There was great confusion and shouting, some were sent for vodka, others - to pharmacists ... for spiritual and doctors. Meanwhile, the king gave up the ghost and stiff.

Above dead autocrat was committed ritual tonsure, on the corpse wearing a nun Schema and they called the late Jonah. Thus was fulfilled the will of Ivan the Terrible, members who wish to atone for the sins of monastic dignity and vileness of his life.

autopsy royal tombs were built for research purposes, that at cranial bones to restore appearance of Ivan the Terrible, therefore, participated in its staff Kremlin museums Institute of Forensic Medicine and other research institutions under leadership MM Gerasimova - an archaeologist, anthropologist and sculptor. In The study also found that earlier attempts reveal the king's tomb, making the left foot of Ivan the Terrible was wounded. But by whom and when it was made - is now impossible to say exactly.

Schema, which buried Ivan IV, for four hundred years so rotted that at the slightest touch to it crumbled in places, preserved only in its contours at the seams. Withdraw a "dress" the scientists had only podkladyvaya under her thick sheets of paper. In the sarcophagus was a large amount of humus (black-brown powder decay), containing particles of fabric and garments small tissue of the deceased. Skull king was slightly rotated to the left, its foundation and left temporal bone were fragile and easily crumble. Unusually located right forearm bones: they were bent at the elbow joint so that the ends of his fingers as if in contact with the bottom jaw ... Basically the same skeleton of Ivan the Terrible remained fairly well, and scientists, according to him, came to the conclusion that the king had a large physical strength.

In headboard sarcophagus was glass cup with a thick yellow-brown liquid color and a dense mass at the bottom. In this mass (as in the coffins of the sons of Ivan Terrible) Chitin scientists have discovered skeletons of flies and beetles, ground beetles, which could crawl into leaky closed sarcophagi. Especially good work a blue cup, which stood in one corner of the sarcophagus. Unknown were neither place nor the time of manufacture of the cup, nor cause or event with which he was associated. I began painstaking work of scientists to establish the history of the cup, which is a glass on the stem total height of 18 centimeters. He painted in gold and enamels in four colors (red, yellow, green and white). Needless glass cup blue - transparent in the middle part and almost ray at the bottom.

In The study found that the cup is connected with the court workshop of Rudolf II - first the Archduke of Austria, and then Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Apparently, it was a gift, as the context of Ivan the Terrible and Rudolf II was very lively and strong, especially during preparations for negotiations with Stefan Batory.

Cup made of Venetian glass, so it is easy and graceful, in the hands quickly warmer, and it resembles blue sapphire. And this stone, as noted n lechebnik, makes "a calm, honest, pious and merciful. Ivan the Terrible, according to the above-mentioned D. Garseya, very loved sapphires, called them "enemies of the patrons of the charity and vice. Gold strip on the edge of the cup in some places obliterated, as is the case of frequent use. Perhaps gift liked the n Tsar, and the day of burial A hand placed the cup next to the late ...

Remains sons of Ivan the Terrible - the murdered Tsarevich Ivan and the Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich -- been wrapped in blankets of silk damask and swaddled braid. Years reign of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich time seemed quiet and serene: the king or what did not interfere, went on a pilgrimage, defended the long church services and even called on the towers. He was known as the king "osvyatovannym" preparing for demise and the future eternal life. It seemed that he would have before his death take the vows, as he lies in a coffin in the secular dress - a tunic girdled with a belt. Apparently, the sudden death prevented the king to embark on the road eternal bliss, which is partly confirmed by the inscription on his tomb. She states that the king of Fyodor Ivanovich died Jan. 6, 1598, and was buried on January 8. The caption did skilful carver, all the letters are cut nice and clear, but the master, apparently in a hurry and did not finish the letter "b" in the word "pious". I turned King called "glagochestivym. Enough time for the selection of an expensive cup for the chrism, and the tomb of the king was installed improperly easy for royal person cup.

References

For preparation of this work were used materials from the site subscribe/archive/history.alltheuniverse


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