category: Forensics

Tests

By: Criminology.

Subject: Criminological classification (typology) of criminals, its foundation and practical importance.

Author: Natalia Meladze < / p>

2003

content

1. The concept of "criminal personality". 3

2. Structure of the offender as a system. 5

3. Classification and typology of the perpetrators, their base 8

4. The value of criminological classification (typology) the identity of criminals. 17
List of literature. 19

Criminological CLASSIFICATION (TYPOLOGY) CRIMINALS, ITS
FOUNDATIONS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS.

1.Ponyatie "criminal personality?.

Under an offender means the totality of its socio -significant properties that affect in combination with external conditions on the criminalbehavior. The offender as a person who commits a criminal actattracts the attention of various legal sciences. Criminal law studied
"Subject of the crime" in the criminal process utilizes a
"Suspect", "the accused", "defendant" in the criminal-executiveright includes "convicted". All these concepts are enshrined in law, and personsthey are designated to have a clearly defined legal status,legal rights and responsibilities. In contrast, the criminologicalnotion of "criminal personality" in the law is not mentioned. Neverthelessallocation of offenders from the mass of people is primarilyon the legal criterion - namely, the existence of a personcrime.

identity of the perpetrator in criminology considered, firstly, asgeneralized statistical portrait, reflecting the totality of socialfeatures that separate criminals from the population living incertain territory in a given period, and secondly, as a specialsocial type called "criminal type personality", and thirdly,the perpetrator is studied with regard to the individual,wrongdoing.

essence of personality, usually manifests itself in two aspects of the externalwhich is characterized by signs of social rights, andinternal, which is estimated on the basis of its social orientation. OnExternally, personality characteristics are its real manifestation inmain activities, which are fixed in the social status andsocial functions. At the domestic level, personality is assessed on the basis ofrelationship to basic rights of its social activities,representing the moral and mental attitude. [1]

a person has committed a crime suggests that thisindividual, if he is not in conflict with the law, guarding the most importantpublic relations, definitely neglects the interests of other peopleshows a somewhat anti-social position, the range whichvery wide.

starting point for the study of offender will itselfcrime. It as a variety of actors arecertain qualities which, when assembled in the criminological literaturecalled social danger offender. But the mancommitted a crime, and has positive effects. They areusually implemented in various spheres of life and in the aggregatecharacterize the positive direction. Thus, the identity ofoffender must be judged on the basis of the ratio of negative and positiveorientation.

How to find VN Burlakov, NM Kropachev and others, there are manypeople that show negative signs, but they did not commitcrimes. Many experts and the authors believe that the offender suchProperties acquired a critical mass, from which thereeffect of a new quality that is ability to commit a crime. Itquality and this science is called "criminal" and gavebasis for the allocation criminogenic personality type. Crimeidentity does not arise at the time of the offense and, having appeared init, "disappears" with him. Crime this property is notinnate and acquired during the interaction of negative micro -from individual to individual.

As the AI Dolgov [2], the type of crime distinguish the individualfollowing components in their entirety:

1) formation of personality in conditions of intensive and illegalimmoral behavior of others (family, friends);

2) the presence of immoral misconduct and variousoffenses are repeated, and after a set of interventions,alienation from the values and norms of society and the state;

3) lack of a sense of social responsibility, tolerance tonegative evaluation of their conduct;

4) activity in the situation of crime and, as a rule,a crime without sufficient valid external causes, etc.
Stable complex of more than twenty characters, including socio -demographic, social role and moral-psychological characteristics,detected in four out of every five surveyed criminals.

Given the above, an offender can be designated asset of socio-psychological characteristics, which under certainsituational circumstances (and even beyond them) lead to the commissioncrime.

2.Struktura offender as a system.

next stage of knowledge of offender is the study ofsystem structure, including a certain way, systematicgroup of features that characterize those who commit a criminalact. If we ignore the particulars in the treatment of this issue by variousauthors, we can suggest the following grouping of structural elementsoffender: the socio-demographic, biophysical,psychological, moral. criminal law and criminological. Anysubstructures of the above can not be autonomous, as they are indefinite relationship, forming a coherent whole.

1. Socio-demographic characteristics: gender, age, social,marital and employment status, profession, level ofmaterial security, the presence or absence of a fixed placeresidence, etc. In essence, this is personal data characterizing anypeople, the entire population. But taken in statistical termsrelation to persons who have committed crimes, they suggestthe presence of certain irregularities and in this seeminglyCriminal neutral characteristic.

age characteristics of offenders provides an indication of the degreeintensity of criminal activity and featurescriminal conduct of representatives of various age groups. Inparticular, crimes committed by young people, tend to beaggressive, impulsive nature, for those same older, by contrast,characterized by a more deliberate crimes.

educational and intellectual levels largely determinenature of the crime. This is understandable, since the data quality insignificantly affect the range of interests and needs, focuscommunication and pastimes, and ultimately - in the way of conduct of a person.
The vast majority of offenders have a secondary education.

In the socio-demographic substructure of offender importancecriminological importance are data on the social situation, sortoccupations and occupation (worker, entrepreneur,pensioner, a person not engaged in socially useful work, etc.). Mostcriminogenic social group are persons who are not engaged in sociallyuseful work: they make up almost a third of all criminals.
Approximately every tenth offender is not a local resident, butsome regions the proportion of such persons as high as 30% or even more.

2. Biophysical features - a state of health, particularlyphysical constitution, the natural properties of the nervous system diseases (inincluding inheritance), etc.

biological nature of man - a necessary condition for individualityidentity, defining its identity and uniqueness. Increasedimportance for the characteristics of offender characteristics of this group haveas factors that hinder the process of socialization. Withcertain traumatic potential, severe chronicand congenital physical defects limit the ability of the individual in terms ofeducation, training and employment, leisure, othernormotipicheskih manifestations of vitality. They may complicateinterpersonal contacts, the relationship of the person with others.

3. Moral properties and psychological features allowdeeper knowledge of the inner content of the individual. In the first case ofideological and moral traits and properties: attitudes, beliefs,value orientations, life aspirations and expectations.

no accident that this group of characters are often divided into subtypes, inparticular stand out need-motivational sphere (needs andinclinations, interests, motivation), the value-normative characteristics of consciousness
(attitudes, beliefs, value orientations). Psychological characteristicsanalyzed in relation to intellectual and volitional, etc.

To characterize the identity of the offender represents a significantvalue of its social role and social status. Motivational Sphereis central to the moral-psychological structure of personalityoffender, integrating her interests, needs, key relationships andactivity. It is typical for those who commit crimes areundisciplined, self-will, a negative attitude to work, toexecution of general civil duties, neglect of the ruleshuman community.

Among the typical features of criminals, there are also emotionalinstability, impulsive behavior, lack of internalinhibition, conflict. A considerable part of the criminals acknowledgesweakness, heightened suggestibility, susceptibility to negative influences fromside. Many observations indicate that a significant proportion of offenderssuffers from mental abnormalities in sanity.

abundance of specific moral and psychological traitscharacterizing the criminals, makes it very urgent to themintegrated assessment, reducing them to shape a common denominator, and thisare now engaged in various scientists criminologists.

4. Criminal law and criminological characteristics inherentcriminals. This is data about a crime, his motivation,forms of guilt, alone or in group criminal activity,criminal history, etc. That is, they reflect the degree of social strainpersonality, its special properties that allow identify the most significantsigns of offenders.

Criminology (kriminologo-genetics and genetic research) maybe progressive and humanistic when it ethical. You can not considerman as a kind of abstract scheme, calmly laying out the quality
'On shelves (capable of - not capable, clever - not clever, prone - notpredisposed), "saying" it to a particular role in the life and timesthereby depriving him of any prospects. With this in mind, ie notforgetting about the ethical side, the offenders must be distinguished fromdemographic, legal, psychological and otherwise, remembering thatthe same token, they are similar to each other, forming a fairly stablegroup. Therefore there is a need for classification and typologycriminals.

3.Klassifikatsiya and personality typology of criminals, their grounds.

In order to properly solve the complex issues of classification andtypology of criminals, which is of great scientific and practical importance,necessary to determine the principal methodological approaches to thesemethods of scientific knowledge. First of all, it should be noted that the classificationand typology, for all their similarities, not the same. Classification aslower level of generalization, is a stable groupof the objects on their individual characteristics and based on very stringentcriteria for groups and subgroups, each of which is clearlyfixed location. Typology of such differentiation does not contain harsh.

Under the group most often refers to a certain distributionstatistical population of certain groups, the category withusing such criteria as the statistical prevalenceone or more features (grouping based on demographicdata: sex, age,-some of the socio-economic criteria:education, occupation, the presence or absence of a fixed placeresidence, occupation, residence in urban or rural areas;
-Citizenship;-state of the individual at the time ofoffenses (drunkenness, drug stimulation), the nature of the criminalbehavior: intentional or reckless, primary or repeat).

typology is a more thorough analysis of the different contingentscriminals. It is based on the essential features, causeassociated with criminal behavior. [3]

term "typology" is closely linked to the substantive nature of the partitiontogether into groups, with a certain high level of knowledge. Thisconditionally distinguished signs, signs and symptoms, causes, providinginformative partitions.

Within the same type must be of uniform signs, manifestations andsigns, causes, and they should reflect some dynamicregularities determinatsionnye line, fixed in criminologicalstudies. For example, the commission of theft (a symptom-manifestation) as a resultstable orientation of a person to criminal means to achieve itsbeing, his impunity after committing previouscrimes because of the high professionalism of the criminal (signs -reasons).

classification of offenders can be constructed in variousgrounds, among which are two large groups of characters:

. sociological (socio-demographic)

. jurisdictions.

The first of these include: gender, age, education level, the levelwealth, social status, the presence of family,social background, employment in socially useful work, genusstudies, the availability of specialty, place of residence.

The second - and the nature, the severity of the crimes committed,crimes for the first time or repeatedly, in a group or alone,duration of criminal activity, the object of a criminal assault,form of guilt.

separate group are the signs that characterize the stateHealth criminals. In this connection may be allocated to health andpersons with physical or mental disorders. Sure,The list of features (criteria) classification of offenders is notis not exhaustive and may be supplemented by others. Much dependsfrom that for which classification is carried out, what specific goals itsubject.

problem typology of offender can only be addressedsound methodological basis. Talking about the identity of the offender associal type is possible only if it differs in anysign, which have no representatives of other social types. Sosign, the property is its social danger, consisting ofpossibility of harm to the relations, which protects the state.
Identity of the perpetrator as a phenomenon of the typological order a vehiclethe most common, persistent, substantial socio-psychological traits andproperties. [4]

typology of offender shall be subject to generalcriminological problem, ie it should be studied in order to knowcauses and mechanism of criminal behavior in order to prevent it. Inbasis of criminological typology of personality can be put subjectiveinternal causes of criminal behavior. This does not mean ignoringother external social factors contributing to the commission of crimes.
But as soon as it is about the identity of the offender, a typology is neededindividual, not mentioned factoditch.

achievements of modern psychology suggests that the mainencourage human activity is the motive. That it reflectsthat for which committed the act, what personal meaning for the subject. Inmotif objectified, specifies the requirements that vary andenriched with the change and expansion of facilities that serve theirsatisfaction. Motive - a subjective phenomenon associated with individualcharacteristics and requirements of the individual, but at the same time includesits socio-psychological traits.

results of modern criminological research does not allowassert that there are specific reasons for criminal behavior. In anyIf most of the motives of crimes are not established and canstimulate other actions. Everything depends on the moral personality traits,predetermine the choice of ends and means of achieving it. Most of the motivesas it is neutral, with the exception of those directed atimplementation of the physiological need for alcohol or drugs.

variety of properties, the manifestations of the perpetrators and their variantsinteraction with the social environment determines the scientific and practicalvalue of classification of persons who commit crimes.

Full-fledged classification of offenders held on the basis of not one,a few of the essential features, cause, or otherwise associated withcriminal behavior and characterizing individual in conjunction withsocial sphere.

Classification proposed Criminology, usually come frommoral, psychological characteristics of offender, the degreepublic danger offense, its depth, persistence, content.

still not lost its scientific and practical importanceClassification AB Sakharov, who are five types of offenders:
"Random", "situational" unstable "," vicious "," high-risk ?.

Concurring with AI Alekseev [5], to classify offenderscan read.

1. Consistently-criminal type. It is characterized by the highestdegree criminal "contamination", resistant to reach the personantisocial orientation, reaching the level of criminal installation.
The commission of crimes of these individuals has become a kind of profession.

may commit crimes in spite of the situation, while reducingneed all the elements that hinder the achievement of a criminalresult. Under this type of stand with a predominance of criminalsaggressively violent or selfish motivation.

By consistently-criminal type should include the so-calledasocial criminals. This is a person with a stable line of criminalbehavior, repeatedly commit crimes because of moraldegradation, impairment in social aspect of personality traits. Mostasocial criminals do not have a permanent place of residence, notmaintain ties with relatives (or no), are engagedvagrancy, begging. Their criminal behavior is usually differentimpulsivity, the primitive nature of the action, a kind of pettiness,unskilled ways of committing and concealing crimes. Howevertime, they can at the most trivial occasions, to make a particularly dangerousoffense, up to murder. Negative moralpsychological traits in one category of offenders oftenburdened by chronic alcoholism, drug abuse, psychopathologicaldeviations.

2. Situationally-criminal type. Formed from the general rule incontradictory environment, respectively, as it were, and the hoof of their identity:positive qualities coexist with the negative, the latter oftenpredominate. Decisive importance in the genesis of criminal behavior isIt is the interplay, interaction, complementarity, negativepersonality traits with the negative characteristics of the environment. Under thistype is also possible to isolate subtypes according to the criterion of criminal motivationAction and other features. Characterized by a violation of moral norms andoffenses committed unassailable character, improperperformance requirements socially acceptable social roles; formedand acts in a controversial microenvironment; crime largelydue to the unfavorable socio-economic, moral andlegal point of view the situation of its commission (stay in the criminalformation, conflict with other persons). The crime the personmicroenvironment and lead his entire previous life, a naturaldevelopment of which is the crime situation.

3. Situational type. By major criminological parametersopposite to the first of the selected types. Characteristic featuresare: the ideological and psychological weakness, social infantile personality,lack of intellectual, emotional and volitional resources neededin order to successfully cope with a difficult situation. In the genesiscriminal behavior is crucial criminal situation. Possibledifferentiation in explanation of criminal behavior and other characteristics.
Immoral elements of consciousness and behavior of such a personality andmicroenvironment, if any, is expressed slightly. More importantdefects in the mechanism of interaction between social environment and personality in a complexsituations, including as a result of lack of preparation for her personality.

4. Random type. These criminals are relatively rare,on their personal qualities do not differ from those for whomcharacterized by a persistent law-abiding behavior. However, they share somethe negative features related not so much to the personality itself, as to itsmanifestations in a particular situation: the lack of diligencecarelessness, excessive impulsivity, etc. The crime for them notline or style of behavior, not a natural result of criminogenicinteraction of personality and situation, but rather annoying incident, a consequenceunfavorable course of objective and subjective circumstances.

considering the classification of offenders, like any other, in asomewhat conventional, but you can not deny the importance and benefits described andclassifications of offenders, because they can differentiatepreventive, remedial and other measures to counteractCrime.

typology summarizes the set of typical for all or certainsocial characteristics of groups of criminals, reveals the internal stabilityconnection between the essential attributes and their manifestations in a particularpersonality. The typology is based on identifying similarities and differences studiedobjects, seeking to identify their patterns. In theoretical termstypology compared with the classification of a higherlevel of cognition. Thus, among criminals may allocate and studyone type, such as the identity of violent criminals.

The most important difference is the classification of the typology is thatThe first gives a description of the object being studied, and the second (along with othermethods) - his explanation, ie, with the typology can open itthe nature, causes, patterns of initiation and development, to predict.
Typology of offenders should be established primarily to explaincauses of criminal behavior.

Criminological typology can select from the varietycriminal manifestations and perpetrators of crimes, the most characteristictypes and images of their actions.

based model building typologies of offender to annature of its anti-social orientation, reflecting the particularmotivational sphere. [6]

main typological signs anti-socialperson are:
. negative and dismissive attitude to human personality and its most important benefits;
. selfish and private property views;
. individualist-anarchist attitude to different common values and social attitudes;
. frivolously irresponsible attitude to their duties.

Practice shows that it is possible to identify the most typological groupsoffenders: the selfish, violent, selfish and violent,sex (according to the criteria motivating).

1. Selfish type. There may be allocated to individual personality typesoffender, for example, explanations of personal enrichment. However, the desire toincreasing material wealth is not unlawful and the main thing hereis what means to achieve this goal are elected.
This type of personality is traditionally called selfish, but it is likelymoral assessment, the concept of self-interest means here the general thrustindividual and the means chosen by the activities and not only on its own motive.
Therefore, the allocation of lucrative type is acceptable only with a reservation. Thistype combines all the perpetrators of crime (any) on the groundspersonal enrichment. Most of all - it is theft, robbery, robbery, theft,fraud, a number of malfeasance.

2. Prestigious type. It should be noted that among the perpetrators of mercenary
(primarily in the theft of state property), and OfficialsCrimes prominently groups committing such acts ofprestigious motives, ie in order to take in the life of highersocial, in the first place, official position, gain prestigeamong others, to be kept in sight, etc. This is often accompanied bymisunderstanding of production and other needs of the enterprise orinstitutions. Self-interest, understood in the sense of personal enrichment, if it isis, acts as an additional motive.

Consequently, called criminals can be combined into a prestigioustype. However, in the prestigious grounds are not only theft andmalfeasance. It has long been established that sometimes theft, robbery,robbery, hooliganism, and some other crimes are committed in orderto gain prestige in the group, to gain a foothold in it, if membership ingroup is valuable. Similar motifs are very commonyouth offenders age, and both are reasons of personal enrichmentare not always leading. Consequently, and this kind of criminalsproperly belongs to the prestigious type.

3. Selfish and violent and the violent type. More difficult to determinepersonality type of criminals who commit so-called selfishviolent crimes such as robberies and looting. To address thisquestion must be based on what the motives wereprincipal. Thus, if the robbery committed with a view to enrichment, the subjectshould be attributed to the selfish type. But practice shows that somerobbery, for example, organized leadership of thecriminal groups are not for the enrichment of these leaders, but in order to uniteparticipants, even more under its influence. Consequently, suchcrimes can be committed from nekorystnyh impulses.

motives of violent crimes (murder, bodily injury,rape) and bullying are quite diverse. Generally calledviolence motivated mistake, because the violent acts for the sakethemselves can only mentally ill, mentally incompetent people. The concept of violencelargely reflects the outward character of action, not only its domesticcontent. Crimes against the person may be committed for explanationpersonal enrichment, so the perpetrators should be attributed to the selfish type.
Some of the killings and injuries occur from hooliganmotives, explanations of jealousy and revenge. Those whose actionssent to these stimuli can be attributed to the violenttype

4.Seksualny type. Guilty of rape and other sexualCrimes motivated by sexual urges can be attributed precisely to thistype.

Thus, among the majority of criminals motivationalcriteria can be identified: lucrative, prestigious, violent andsexual types. This allocation is conditional, maycolor and other types.

is easy to see in the above typology, that kind of crime is not alwayscoincides with the type of offender. So bloodguilty
(a crime of violence motivated by personal gain)should be attributed to the selfish type. Motive is very important, but notthe only indication for a typology of criminals.

typological groups can be constructed and the natureanti-social orientation and values. In this connection,Criminology, groups that show:

-negative and dismissive attitude to the personality and its majorbenefits: life, health, bodily integrity, honor, peace,dignity etc. This attitude lies at the basis of intentionalaggressive-violent crimes - murder, bodily injury,rape, abuse, etc., as well as the majority of cases of bullying;

-selfish private ownership trends associated with ignoringrights to all types of property. This is typical for the commission of theft,theft, fraud, bribery and other mercenary crimes;

-individualistic attitude to different social setting andrequirements to their civil, office, family and otherresponsibilities. Such anti-social features that define the commission of certaineconomic crimes, crimes against public order,justice, military crimes, etc.;

-frivolously irresponsible attitude to the established socialvalues and their responsibilities towards them, manifested invarious crimes through negligence.

possible allocation of types of offenders and the degree of their socialrisk of contamination of the crime, its severity and activity:
- especially dangerous criminals (active antisocial)
- repeatedly convicted repeat offenders, persistent criminal activity which is in the nature of active opposition to society, its values and norms, and they strongly involve in such activities others

(corrupt, ordinary criminals).
- professional criminals they should be allocated specifically for them criminally punishable acts are the sole or main source of livelihood.
- and so on

for especially dangerous criminals typically that favorable forcrime situation, they actively create themselves;desotsializirovannye dangerous criminals (passive antisocial) is a person,
''dropped out''of the system of normal relations and communication for a long timeleading parasitic, often homeless existence. This is a trampbeggars, parasites. Many of them are alcoholics. In contrast to the highly dangerouscriminals are basically passive, as if "adrift".
The situation for selfish offenses committed themselves usually do not create, butuse folding. As a particularly dangerous criminals, representativesof this type are stable in their attitudes and misconduct;unstable criminals - those who commit crimes (sometimesrepeatedly), not because of persistent anti-social attitudes and perceptions,in relation to the inclusion in the livelihoods of some groups of negativeorientation, a lifestyle on the verge of a socially acceptable andantisocial. They differ partial criminal contamination,which combines features of the criminal's personality and identitylaw-abiding citizen.

most common representatives of this type areoffenders who commit drunken petty theft and thefthooliganism, at least - looting, robberies, some violent crimes.
When a significant change in life circumstances for the better andeffective educational influence they are able to abstain fromunlawful acts; situational offenders - individuals, publicrisk of identity which is expressed in the behavior slightly, but stillhowever there is also manifested in appropriate situations. Crimescommitted by them, not because the specific situation is crucial,but because of the personal psychological characteristics, because of which theyfall into a rigid dependence on the situation and as a result of insufficientmoral education?? not find a socially acceptable way ofsolutions. Among the situational is a significant part of enforcedcriminals and perpetrators of acquisitive crimes in an objectivedifficult life circumstances, such as financial difficultiesetc.

Of course, this typology, like others, is conditional and, inApparently, not every offender can be unhesitatingly ascribed to somea certain type. You can also find and mixed, intermediatetypes, which are inherent features of other types. [7]

4. The value of criminological classification (typology) of personalitycriminals.

typology of offender shall be subject to generalcriminological problem, ie it should be studied in order to knowcauses and mechanism of criminal behavior in order to prevent it. Withtypology can help to reveal its nature, causes, patternsinitiation and development, to predict. Typology of offenders shouldcreated primarily to explain the causes of criminal behavior.

Criminological typology can select from the variety ofcriminal manifestations and perpetrators of crimes, the most characteristictypes and images of their actions.

typology summarizes the set of typical for all or certainsocial characteristics of groups of criminals, reveals the internal stabilityconnection between the essential attributes and their manifestations in a particularpersonality.

can not deny the importance and usefulness of the classification of criminals because theydifferentiate preventive, remedial and other measuresto crime.

Knowing the general laws of the contingent of criminals, their distinctivefeatures and typological features, not at the same time forget thatany area of practice to combat crime --prevention, disclosure of criminal cases in court, the appointment of criminalpunishment, correction of criminals - a law enforcement officeralways deals with a living person. Therefore, in all cases he is obligedbear in mind the individuality of each individualsuspect, accused or convicted person. In this connection it should be noted thatin today's interest in human individuality and increasedamong the tasks of complex study of man occupies a significant place.

List of used literature.

1. Chufarovsky UV Criminology questions and otvetah.-M.: TC Velbi,

Izd Avenue, 2004

2. Alekseev AI Criminology. -M., 1999.

3. Criminology: Textbook, Ed. Acad. VN Kudryavtsev, prof.

EF Eminova. - M., 1997.
-----------------------< br>[1] Chufarovsky UV Criminology questions and otvetah.-M.: TC Velbi, Izd
Prospect, 2004 p.36

[2] Dolgov, AI Kriminologiya.-M., 1999.
[3] AI Alekseev Criminology. -M., 1999.
[4] Chufarovsky UV Criminology questions and otvetah.-M.: TC Velbi, Izd
Prospect, 2004

[5] AI Alekseev Criminology. -M., 1999. p.52

[6] Criminology: Textbook, Ed. Acad. VN Kudryavtsev, prof. EF
Em


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