Roman Grimmelshausen "Simplicissimus" CONTENTS

I. Introduction.

II. Roman GK Ya Grimmelshausen "Simplicissimus" as the highest achievement of "grassroots" baroque in literature in Germany 17 th century.

1. The political situation in Germany, 17 th century, as reflected in the novel Grimmelshausen "Simplicissimus" (Thirty Years' War).

2. General characteristics of the 17 th century German Baroque.

3. Concept of "grassroots" baroque.

4. Roman Grimmelshausen terms reflect the dei photosensitivity.

5. Literary and cultural sources of the novel "Simplicissimus".

6.Ideynoe content of the novel.

7. Conversation nature works Grimmelshausen.

8. Composition of the novel Grimmelshausen "Simplicissimus".

9. The image of Simplicissimus in the novel.

10. Language and style of the work.

11. The literary fate of the novel "Simplicissimus" and its importance in world literature.


Roman Grimmelshausen "Simplicissimus" - work, detailed studies of the German study of literature. However, the n language, these works are not translated.

in domestic science major and almost the only scholar G. J. K. Grimmelshausen is AA Morozov, whose study "Simplicissimus" and its author "," Problems of the European Baroque, Mannerism and Baroque "as literary terms "were used in this study. Its goal - to consider the novel "Simplicissimus" as a work of art in the context of the overall development of the German Baroque literature 17 th century.

To do this, follow a certain sequence of presentation: to highlight the issue of the historical situation, depicted in the novel, to give an overview of German Baroque literature and the notion of "grassroots" Baroque, consider the sources used Grimmelsgauzenom, and then proceed to the characterization of the novel as a work of art: clarify its ideological content, compositional structure, the nature of the genre, to describe the image of the protagonist - Simplicissimus, to assess the language and style of work. CHAPTER 1 THE POLITICAL SITUATION IN GERMANY 17 th century, as reflected in the novel ??Grimmelshausen "Simplicissimus" (Thirty Years' War)

17 th century German literature - tragic, but very bright page in the history of German, as well as world culture. The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), the country has brought untold misfortune, triumph of the reaction at its conclusion still could not prevent the creation of such distinguished German poets, playwrights and fiction writers as Opitz and Logan, Gryphius, Mosherosh and Grimmelshausen who courageously and selflessly worked in most appalling conditions, the Modern. In his works, they captured the tragedy of Germany, thanks to them that humanity learned about the fate of the people, sacrificed feudal strife, military conflicts, helpless before the power of all the strong feudal lords. That this is the international significance of the 17 th century German literature. Poems and novels Gryphius Grimmelshausen include documents which have imprinted the realities of time, documents, full of incredible cruelty of truth.

What represents Germany reporting period?

If the beginning of the 17 th century all the major Western countries have had their national classic literature (Italy, England, Spain, France, Holland), the Germaknii observed a different picture. First of all, the creation of a nationwide German literature prevented the fragmentation of the state: the wave of the Reformation that swept in the 16 century, led to the unification of the country. Throughout the 16 th century reverses the economic life of Germany, which resulted in the decline of the German bourgeoisie. Germany returned to absolute power, almost feudal absolutism large (princes). The fragmentation prevented the union of popular forces to organize a great peasant war, but the frequent uprisings still strikes fear in the landowners.

political impotence of Germany has meant that the country was conquered by the Austrian Habsburgs, and sharp social contradictions have contributed to embroil Germany in the Thirty Years' War, in which she became a bone of contention between fighting for dominance in her powerful European states (France, Austria, Sweden ).

Thirty Years' War was accompanied by massacres of the German feudal lords with their own people. The formal pretext for it was a religious struggle with Protestantism in the Czech Republic, the former at that time part of Germany.

Historians have traditionally divided the Thirty Years War in 4 large period (* 1): "Czech" (1618-1623), who was accompanied by massive looting and destruction of civilian population, to bleed and enslaved the Protestant Czech Republic, "Danish" or "Saxon" ( 1625-1629), characterized by the entry of German soil foreign invaders (the French), "Swedish" (1630-1635), when the mutual acrimony and extent of looting have exceeded all reasonable available understanding of the limits, "French" (1635-1646): Bayern was ravaged by the Swedes and the French turned to the desert of West Germany.

Roman Grimmelshausen "Simplicissimus" linked to the events of the Thirty Years War, which represented at the level of its rank and file members, directly touched by the war, saw its worst manifestation of his own eyes. That is why the novel does not describe the large-scale military action, images of military commanders, developing strategy battles. Of course, in reality it took place, but not interested in the author's novel. The subject of his images have become ordinary members of the war and their fate.

In this regard, it must be said that the core of all who fought in the Thirty Years War armies were lansquenet. They became vagabonds, losers, opportunists and desperate people, who were called "soldiers of fortune." Cut off from the usual classes, from labor, lansquenet lost their sense of homeland. They did not care - where and with whom to fight. Profit they become an end in itself.

Raids lancers were like locust invasion: their looting, violence, ??indemnities and stand up, they ravaged the country.

Morozov said that residents alike plunged into the horror of the news of the approach as "a" and the enemy troops. People hurried to hide assets, while they themselves fled in all directions. Particularly affected are the peasants in the village where looters burst unit, not part of any army, and act at their own risk. This picture is given Grimmelsgauzenom in the first chapters of "Simplicissimus": a forgotten village of the dead wandered detachment lancers, who betray the fire and sword everything.

In the popular mind the war are brought brutal bout soldiers and peasants. Hopelessness of the war, the end of which was not visible, has generated a certain kind of people-parasites who accompanied the army like a "pack of jackals" (Morozov). They have not participated in the raids, but refused to plunder the dead. After 200 years, Victor Hugo wrote about such people in his novel "Les Miserables": "Behind each army has a trail ... There is akin to bats polurazboyniki, polulakei, all varieties of bats occurring in the twilight, which are referred to the war, people dressed in military uniforms, but they never fought, Imaginary Invalid, hateful cripple, suspicious Sutler ... steals something that they themselves have sold, to the poor ... Oboznaya servants looters. (* 2) At the time, the number of people involved and Simplicissimus .

between looters and the regular army there was constant interaction: part Landsknechts pestered by looters, and the last at the event return to the army either voluntarily or forcibly. Again we see evidence of this in the novel: the detachment of marauders, which was Simplicissimus, attacked Weimar troops, who were armed with muskets and the robbers scattered on their shelves (IV, 13).

In 1648 was awarded a long-awaited, so-called Westphalian world. But it was not favorable for Germany, because enshrining it razdrroblennost. The war devastated the country. "When peace came, - wrote Engels - Germany was defeated - helpless, trampled, torn, bleeding." (* 3)

outcome of the war did not inspire optimism. The peasants were economically undermined the country deserted by her, a wave of epidemics, the worst of which was the plague, impoverished town, the industry died out, left derelict school, they had no teachers, the consequence was a general ignorance. Not the best of times experienced and universities. In addition, the fire died in the flames of cultural values: palaces, churches, libraries, archives, pictures, curiosities. Most disturbing enlightened segment of the population caused the destruction of the national German language, which mixed with French and Latin.

contemporaries Germany seemed ashes. The war left a deep imprint in the minds of the people. Her thinking evolved from the direct impressions emerging from its people and from arising in connection with these legends. This view of the Thirty Years' War and Grimmelshausen depicted in his novel "Simplicissimus".

* 1 - The history of German literature USSR. V.1. M.1962, c.35

* 2 - Victor Hugo. Miserables. Ch.2, .1, gl.19.M., Art. Literature, 1954, s.406-407

* 3 - Op. in the book. A. Morozov. "Simplitsisimus" and its author. L., Science, 1984, p.68 CHAPTER 2 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GERMAN BAROQUE LITERATURE 17 century

long thought that the German Baroque literature emerged as a kind of creativity that reflects the ideology of the upper society. But this is not true. Actually

German Baroque was formed in the 17 th century in Hamburg at the end of the Thirty Years War. Hamburg patrician took a neutral stance in the war, and therefore not only ruined, but also flourished during its continuation. Burghers of Hamburg in 1640 became the most powerful in Germany. That culture is associated with Citizens' emergence and development of the Baroque in Germany. One of the first German poets of the baroque direction was the pastor Johann Rist - "a typical representative of the reaction-burgher Lutheran 17 th century." (* 1) He looked at poetry as a "subordinate rules decorated presentation out clear and reasonable thinking." (* 2) < / p>

characteristic features of German Baroque stood out clearly in the works of Philip von Tsesena that differed passion for the strange etymology than evoked ridicule from pundits. Tsesen tried to prove that all the ancient languages come from the Germanic. Since it begins the process of "formalist degeneration" (* 3) Citizens' poetry, which lost its national and social content. German literature is becoming fertile ground for planting court-aristocratic art of Spain and Italy 17 th century (and Marinism Gongorism).

second center of baroque literature in Germany was the 17 th century Nuremberg, who, though badly damaged in the Thirty Years' War, came to decline immediately, but maintain ties with the north of Germany and Austria. The head of the Nuremberg poets has been, since 30-ies, Georg Garsderfer, who despised the old German poetry, and the supreme art of counting mannered aristocratic literature of Italy 17 th century. His commitment to the Italian tradition Garsderfer proved once again, founded in 1644 "Praised Pegnitsky pastoral and floral decoration" is a copy of the Italian literary academy. Garsderfer was the author of "Poetics", which is regulated not only writing, but also contained a dissertation on the German, who confessed quite euphonious and melodious, not conceding in the Italian. It also set out a typical baroque theory of relations of poetry to the neighboring arts: poetry is speaking painting, the poet must paint. In addition, the poetry should be closer to music through a tender or a thundering sound of verse.

Representatives of the Nuremberg school, the writing in the genre of pastoral, which allowed them to escape from the ugly and disappointing reality in the world of conventional and idealized. The aim of the Nuremberg Baroque aesthetics (as well as the Baroque in general) was to create a spectacle, an illusion, the opposite of reality.

Baroque poetry Nuremberg school, as noted in "History of German Literature" (* 4), has the nature of formal experiment. This early stage of its development: through its wordiness, bombastic poet wants externalities. This ideological inane poetry, whose motto is: "Therefore, the aim wrest amazement."

Another line of German poetry of the Baroque associated with irrationalism and mysticism engendered by fear of reality, the gap between consciousness and being, between the ideal and life. "The political and cultural reaction, compounded by social catastrophe in Germany the Thirty Years War, contributes to broader development of mysticism, the Protestant and Catholic, as a certain illusory means of escape from intolerable conditions of real as public life." (* 5)

ancestor of the 17 th century German mystic Jacob Boehme believed, developed by scientists of the possibility of direct communication with God, of the inner source of truth. Despite the fact that the teaching of Boehme's called an escape from reality into the world of inner experience, it played a big role in the development of German and world philosophy, as a first attempt to overcome the traditional dualism of the religious consciousness. For works of Boehme, the character of living German, not Latin, traditional in the scientific field of the time. They are marked by great interest in art, unusual, vivid comparison, typical for the Baroque poets. And, finally, the last stage in the German Baroque was the so-called second Silesian school. Its center was located in Breslau, economic and cultural capital of Silesia. The school was represented by two major poets - Loenshteynom and Gofmansvaldau. Some contemporary German scholars call this school a model of "high" baroque. But the authors of "History of German Literature" (* 6) believe that the creativity of these poets demonstrates a typical decomposition of literary style. Poets "second Silesian school" are followers of the "Shepherd and flower orders and the Spanish-Viennese School baroque tradition which most fully reflects the creativity Gofmansvaldau. "His poetry is in the inner emptiness is highly formalist sophistication: it is the antithesis of pile, couplets, verse formulas, practices a style, compressed to the mystery, in the form of endless variation of the same theme changing variety of metaphor." (* 7)

Thus, we can conclude that the German poetry of the "High" Baroque differed emptiness, unprincipled, verbal bombast, the almost complete absence of any kind was the original features and is, in essence, an imitation of Italian and Spanish samples.

addition to poetry, in German literature of the 17 th century has been widely presented zhmnr novel with "characteristics antirealisticheskoy aesthetics" (* 8), borrowed from French literature. Among the German nobility was a popular French aristocratic romance of all types: pastoral, gallant, psevdorytsarsky, pseudo-, quasi-, historical-State.

distinguishing feature of these novels has been, first, an unusually large amount, and secondly, the extreme complexity of plot, lots of saturated intersecting story lines that could be explained not mediocrity authors, and the specificity of their artistic goals. Novelists have sought to embrace the whole world, to reach his description of a wide panorama. Therefore, they are not completely occupied the inner lives of characters in these novels was not even a hint of character development and psychology. Aesthetics of the Baroque not conceive of love out of wars, campaigns and victories, which entailed an unavoidable complication of the plot. The third feature was the presence of baroque novels of extensive scientific comments, footnotes, digressions, reflections on history, political structure, etc.

from aristocratic affair gradually "migrated" to the burgher and the demotic, which has changed, transformed in accordance with readers' requests. But all the main features of the above, he kept it. The supreme achievement of the novel "bottom" Baroque is "Simplicissimus" Grimmelshausen. But the novel Grimmelshausen - a work of satire,a kind of parody of the genre of "high" aristocratic romance. It "has affected the development of realistic tendencies of German literature." (* 9)

* 1, * 2, * 3 - History of German literature. V.1. 9 17vv. (Under Society. Red. NI Balashov). Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR, 1962. S.392

* 4, * 5 - ibid, s.395

* 6 - ibid, s.398

* 7 - ibid, s.399

* 8 - ibid, s.400

* 9 - ibid, P.403 CHAPTER 3 THE CONCEPT OF "ground" BAROQUE

term "baroque" originated long ago. It was common among artists, antiques, jewelry. In modern science there is a dual approach to the understanding of the term "baroque". According to some researchers, it is linked to its origin with the Portuguese title pearls ugly or bizarre (perla barroca). In this sense the word is common in the inventory books and trading records since the early 16 th century. In another sense, the term "baroque" was used, for example, M. de Montaigne, calling them absurd conclusion proof, whimsical syllogism of scholastic logic. It is this etymology consistently reported by most modern scholars.

Until recently, the Baroque understood very simplistic: just as "tasteless, ugly, a Jesuit" (in the words of Benedetto Croce) period, aimed at the church and upper classes. Thus, stressed the clerical and courtly-aristocratic character of baroque and manifestations in this feudal-style protest (Jacob Boehme), the ideas of the national liberation movement (in the Western Slavs) to ignore or exempt from the Baroque and attributed to other genres and styles. It seemed that the Baroque was detached from the broader intellectual and ideological movements, alien people or was produced with a view to his spiritual bondage "(* 1).

can not deny the existence of so-called bottom-baroque - Culture Citizens 'and peasants' environment. However, recognizing its scientists are not united in opinion. Czech scientist Lotman advanced the proposition that the "grass-roots" Baroque - "a form of mass culture." He believes that it can not be called folk because that culture was not created within the people, and the "top" for him, thus "deliberately sought to folklorizatsii their ideas and the nationalization of recorded outside of artistic principles." In contrast to this view, Morozov believes that "folklorizatsiya, the invasion of naturalistic elements and decorative folk motifs - a general feature of Baroque art and literature" (* 2), regardless of whether "high" or "grass-roots" refers to the Baroque . Bottom-baroque - wrote Morozov - has been established at the top and not composed specifically for the people, but arise from the creative needs of the masses. Invasion of folklore in literature went from below, from the depths of the national consciousness, reflecting the resistance of the popular masses imposed on them from above ideology. "

"Drifting" baroque use ready-made artistic means and motives, borrowing them from the "high" literature of baroque, exposing the complex processing, transforming and reinterpreting. All the main features of the "High" Baroque present and in the "grass roots": irrationalism, rhetorical principle, variation techniques, figurative style. Constant motif reminders of death, impermanence and futility of earthly existence: in the era of endless wars and social upheavals person feels, a chip of wood on the waves of a changing of happiness "(* 3): I - the ball transient happiness, and the mirror image of the variability of impermanence of human life" - talks about himself the protagonist of "Simplicissimus". As in the literature of the aristocratic baroque, the world is perceived as a theater or a dream, a man feels himself a party to the universal masquerade.

Unlike pretsioznoy literature, prose "grass roots" baroque more traditional and close to folklore: its characters remain at the level of generalized typical and retain a significant share of convention. This makes them suitable for creating grotesque satire. Each character is the bearer of a moral quality, and remains unchanged throughout the action.

* 1, * 2 - A. Morozov. Problems of the European Baroque. / / Questions literature, N 12, 1968, p.113

* 3 - A. Morozov. "Simplicissimus" and its author. P.144 CHAPTER 4 NOVEL "Simplicissimus" in terms of its reflection of the REALITY

As already mentioned, the novel Grimmelshausen unfolds against the backdrop of the Thirty Years War. However, not her event, but the fate of heroes is the author in the first place. Despite the fact that some episodes of the novel is plausible and reliably draw pictures of the war, for which guessed personal experience of the author, mostly "fiction story oppresses and subjugates its development of the plot" (* 1).

Morozov stressed that none of any significant historical figure in the novel is not displayed. They are mentioned only in passing, supporting the general plot outline. Of the generals who have actually lived Grimmelshausen mentions only one - the Imperial General von Werth, and then only because he belonged to the "lowest class of people" who "through the much vaunted heroic courage and fearlessness soar straight to the princely and baronial status" (* 2 )

writer says more about several historical personages (Swedish general Shtalgans, Colonel Mercier, the commandant of Saint-Andre, General Jacob Ramsay), but all of them he ascribes so much fictional, of the artistic concept, but not the reality that the gap between the prototype and the artistic character in the reader's mind becomes almost insurmountable.

addition, Grimmelshausen allows himself great freedom in the interpretation of history. He fearlessly uses the device of combining of multi-events, thus solidifying the time of the novel.

events of the novel reflect the history of the Thirty Years War, only in general terms, outline its contour. But to trace the course of the war, reading the novel, it is impossible. "Episodes" Simplicissimus "correlated with historical reality, but not attached to her tightly" (* 3). The writer avoids specifying the exact dates and geographical coordinates of events. In the words of the researcher A. Bechtold, topographic data of the novel shape, like a mosaic, from the fictional, read or heard. Thus Grimmelshausen free from "petty tutelage over reality." It does not reflect its mirror, and breaking in his mind, indirectly. Not turning into a "chronicler" is not pumping historical episodes and details, the writer "truly captured and condemned the Face of War" (* 4).

* 1 - A. Morozov. "Simplicissimus" and its author. p.70

* 2 - GY K. Grimmelshausen. Simplicissimus. M., 1976, I, 17, p.61

* 3 - A. Morozov. Ordinance. cit., p.71

* 4 - ibid, p.80 CHAPTER 5 literary and cultural SOURCES OF NOVEL Grimmelshausen "Simplicissimus"

Works Grimmelshausen testify about his knowledge in various fields of science. It is known that Grimmelshausen was the compiler of popular calendars, so a range of knowledge it was necessary.

However, the views of scientists about the level and degree of education of the writer is different. A. Keller thought that the author of "Simplicissimus," like his hero, was not very learned, and cited as evidence of the words from the writings Grimmelshausen "Satirical Pilgram" that the author of anything and never studied, but "grew up rough-hewn rude ignorant ass and an idiot. "

G. Kurtz thought this statement is not related to the author, but to the hero - a prototype Simplicissimus. Kurtz noted that Grimmelshausen knew several languages, was familiar with the works of ancient authors and Church Fathers.

Titmana According to Yu, the writer had only a superficial knowledge of Latin, but his "scholarship" borrowed from the encyclopedic works.

Other researchers believe that Grimmelshausen possessed a remarkable library, even if you do not take books, which he probably did not read, and quoted at popular compilations.

Morozov writes about how that is unlikely to have the author of "Simplicissimus" was more than a dozen books, to which he constantly addressed. The basis of his knowledge of the scientist believes "tenacious memory": "Grimmelshausen collect their" learning "bit by bit." (* 1) In the novel "Simplicissimus" clearly distinguished motives Schwank and superstitious folk tales, drawn from oral tradition. Scientific

A. Berlinger even believe that Grimmelshausen pick up the various motifs from the stories of experienced people, lancers, tavern regulars, and only partly from collections of short stories - the so-called "people's books." Thus, all the creativity and Grimmelshausen novel "Simplicissimus" in particular, is closely linked to folk tradition.

Books Baroque bursting under the weight of bulky scholarship. Writers paraded knowledge of ancient history, mythology and poetry. "It was a time of curiosities, exotic curiosities and rarities. (* 2) Completeness of knowledge was understood as their accumulation without deep penetration into the content, in the true sense - this phenomenon was called poligistorstva. Gave him a tribute and Grimmelshausen. His handbook was a kind of encyclopaedia Tomaso Gartsoni "Piazza universale ...", served as a writer, an inexhaustible source. This extremely versatile compilation replace an entire library. In the novel "Simplicissimus" Grimmelshausen used 17 out of 153 "discourses" Gartsoni. Another reference book writer who became one of the sources of his novel, was "Oeconomia" Johann Kolerusa, the former body of knowledge on agriculture to include health boards.

"Erudition Grimmelshausen - wrote Morozov - folksy. His" scholarship "is naive. He borrows the Latin quotations, along with the misspellings. And not only does not check, but did not agree upon their sources so that the name of one and the same locality can occur in different writing. " (* 3)

17 century - a century of rapid development of natural sciences, the time specified information about the structure of the celestial spheres, while the emergence of a scientific outlook. All this passes Grimmelshausen, which remains the compiler of folk calendars with the traditional commitment to astrology and superstition. Among the books - sources "Simplicissimus" were also: "Treasury of the supernatural, the wonderful sights and stories" Simon Gulyar, "Demonology" Jean Bodin and other writings on magic, astrology and demonology. Expressed interest in this kind of literature, Grimmelshausen still treated her with a certain degree of irony and ridicule. To construct a novel of great importance were "apofegi" - collections of maxims and aphorisms. Many techniques syuzhetovedeniya Grimmelshausen borrowed from the aristocratic heroic novels, but the actors, social and household furnishings "Simplicissimus" alien to the aristocratic and refined the scientific environment in which the action takes place normally in these novels.

Thus, referring to various sources, both folk and literary, Grimmelshausen subordinated borrowed from them, "news" of his artistic goals, tied with the course of his narrative. Borrowed motives entered into the complex interaction, forming a unique and original novel.

* 1 - A. Morozov. "Simplicissimus" and its author. P.82

* 2 - ibid

* 3 - ibid, p.83 CHAPTER 6 ideological content NOVEL "Simplicissimus"

ideological content of the novel "Simplicissimus" differs ambiguity and is closely linked with baroque worldview Grimmelshausen. The author knows what he would like to see the reality, but also understands and impossibility of achieving this ideal. Through its main character Grimmelshausen bitterly remarked: "You left the desert in the hope udo volstvovat shameful his passion to behold the world. But look, if you fancied that you'll delight your eyes, you're forced into a dangerous maze of this and divide and die. Do not you, foolish simpleton, he could not conceive in advance that your late predecessor would not exchange the joys of peace in the grim life in the wilderness, when dreamed it would reach true peace, secure peace and eternal bliss? " (* 1)

Enter a world of people with perfect views and pure intentions, formed as a result of communication with the hermit, as "the simplest simpleton" Simplicissimus immediately see that people live not as it should and how to teach the wise old man. So, watching the picture of human debauchery and impiety, the hero in horror finds that none of these people does not honor a truly Christian religion, that their thoughts and aspirations do not go beyond a purely secular, base th. However, many know the strict will of the Lord, but almost no one, it should not. "Along with the pride and greed ... daily exercise with enough people were drinking and gluttony, debauchery and flirting ..."(* 2) Simplicissimus surprised that people say what you like idols and the idols, as the heathen, but not Christ . They worship the golden calf, the court career, beauty, women, materialmu welfare.

most clearly the idea of the gap between dream and reality is manifested in the "program" the transformation of Germany, described the foolish Jupiter. This "prophet" heralds the coming of the upcoming "German character" who "will destroy all the impious and pious people will maintain and elevate" (* 3). Jupiter says that the hero will unite Germany, collecting all the cities and principalities into a single state, which will be managed by a board composed of representatives from all cities. Will be abolished serfdom. Germany comes prosperity. "German" hero put an end to religious strife, gathered all the Christian religions of the world into one - "right, true, holy." Ideas of Jupiter can not be equated with ideology itself Grimmelshausen. The writer looks at them from, ironically commenting on the lips of Simplicissimus. To a certain extent, dreams Jupiter responsible attitudes and political demands of the peasant movements of 16-17 centuries, fought for the establishment of perpetual peace and social justice. Simplicissimus listens to the speech of Jupiter with a sad sympathy and condescending smile, clearly aware of unrealizability and fantastic ideas about the reign of universal harmony. Grimmelshausen not seen a real force in society, comparable with a German hero, capable of bringing people relief from suffering. That is why the aspirations of the German people the writer has put into the mouth of a madman.

In his work Grimmelshausen gives a broad picture of contemporary society, vesting it in the allegorical form of sleep his hero. In this dream Simplicissimus sees unusual, wonderful tree, whose roots are composed of meaningless people, artisans and peasants, who are doomed to nothing but hardship and lamentation, because the tree with all its weight presses on them, and squeezes out the juices. On the upper branches are located more affluent segments of the population. The lower are constantly striving to throw off the top and take their place. The image of the tree Grimmelshausen expresses the idea of social injustice, the eternal struggle and the intransigence of the various social forces.

Morozov said that the ideological contradictions of the novel is due to the contradictions of the time, and those of the author, oscillating between an active protest against social injustice and passive contemplation of social evils and misfortunes of a war, between the desire for social transformation and a sense it is not feasible, his powerlessness to change anything in the concrete historical situation of reaction after the Thirty Years War.

* 1 - GY K. Grimmelshausen. Simplicissimus. M., 1976. P.67

* 2 - ibid, p.75

* 3 - ibid, p.191 CHAPTER 7 composition of the novel "Simplicissimus"

The structure of the novel Grimmelshausen "Simplicissimus" for all its apparent awkwardness observed sense of proportion and ratio. Development of novel energetic and not at a standstill, the heads are simple and nezatyanuty, their sequence clearly understood and artistic subject to strict compositional idea.

"Simplicissimus" represents an alternation of episodes, the unity which in all their diversity is determined by the way of the protagonist.

In the novel there are no complex, confusing plot, no developing several parallel or interwoven storylines.

Episodes of "Simplicissimus" is not perceived as "adventures" of the hero, but as the vicissitudes of his destiny. Adventures are not an end in itself for Simplicissimus. They are ambiguous and not stringing?? I have on each other. Each adventure, every incident - it is one step in the life of Simplicissimus, its stage, which enriches the experience of the hero, shapes his outlook. In his adventures Simplicissimus opens up new aspects of life, hitherto unknown to him.

most important structural element of the novel is "novelistic coincidence: many episodes, the characters appear in the novel by chance, without preparation. The composition of the novel "Simplicissimus" not focused on the perpetual motion of the hero in a straight line, but not a reflection of kego continuous, steady climb. "Simplicissimus falls and rises, but never returned to them again." (* 1) These developments contrast sharply with the plot of the novel Grimmelshausen picaresque novels and makes it a new stage in the development of German literature.

* 1 - The history of German literature. V.1. M., 1962. S.416 CHAPTER 8 THE NATURE OF THE NOVEL GENRE Grimmelshausen "Simplicissimus" Genre

novel "Simplicissimus" can not be defined unambiguously. It is synthetic and combines the features of various modifications of the novel.

Primarily, this is a novel-education. "Simplicissimus" was the first German novel, which depicted the development of the personality of the hero from early childhood to maturity. However Grimmelshausen still rises to the analysis of the inner world of the hero, so the product is not psychology. Secondly, "Simplicissimus" is a satirical novel. In describing the adventures of the hero, the writer criticizes the contemporary social reality, depicting her in all ugliness and deformity. The novel is saturated with allusions to historical reality, but despite this, is not historical, as mentioned above.

"Simplicissimus" contains the features of the allegorical novel. There are many mnoskazany, allegorical images. Morozov said that the allegorical interpretation of reality through the Ask the entire novel, as an allegorical reflection falls on the identity of his principal characters, which form a peculiar didactic triptych. At its center stands Simplicissimus, and the wings form Hertsbruder (the personification of righteousness) and Olivier (the symbol of evil). Between these two principles and sways like a pendulum, Simplicissimus. The most intense allegorical images and related reasoning is Book VI of the novel. For

allegory of the novel is viewed real life the 17 th century Germany. From this point of view "Simplicissimus" - a realistic novel. Realism Grimmelshausen - directly in the compilation of the visible and observable in the creation of a "grand synthesis" (* 1). The realistic nature of the novel emphasizes the development of deep themes in it people. Grimmelshausen exalts the peasant labor, feeding all the other classes. This is singing in his song in the beginning of the novel Simplicissimus: "despised by all of a peasant family, however, feeds the whole nation. But the working people of the century, forced to endure the hardships and endure the hardships: "You have sent down a heavy cross To bear up to the mountain places. Your good soldier takes you on the train b

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