category: Moskvovedenie

History Moscow

Panorama medieval Moscow

Moscow began XVII century was our magnificent. Kremlin surprise combined with the rest of the buildings of the city and was visible from the majority of outposts and streets, as well as located in the center of Moscow on a high hill Borovitsky over the Moskva River, beyond which stretched the lowland Zamoskvorechye. All major radial streets converge to its gate. So the prospects for Moscow's streets and far Architectural closed by a structure of the Kremlin: Gate Tower, a pillar of Ivan the Great, or canopy cover, which in the moat (temple Basil). Throughout the panoramic grandeur of the Kremlin opened with Shvivoy slides, with the rise of Prechistenka from Zamoskvorechye. Silhouettes of the fortress towers Kremlin's towers were supported by China-town, Tzareva (White) city and Skorodoma. As we move from them to the Kremlin and the increased number of towers their height increased. Played a role here, and Moscow's relief which has increased the expressiveness of the silhouettes of the city, as the Savior and Nikolsky gates of the Kremlin, as well as China-Ilinskij gates of the city were built Borovitsky on the crest of the hill; Tversky and Sretenskii gate Tzareva (White) city - on the high hills postural Moscow Upland. In turn, vertical Kremlin cathedrals and the Ivan the Great Bell reflected in the cathedrals and towers of Moscow monasteries, located in three semirings. Closest to the Kremlin, the northern ring-road consisted Alekseevskogo, Exaltation of the Cross, the Nikita, George, and Zlatoust Ivanovo monasteries. They stood near each other, in the midst of urban sprawl. Their bell and churches closed the prospect with the neighboring streets and alleys. Second group monasteries: Vysokopetrovsky, Christmas, Sretenski and, later, Good, placed along the northern wall of the White City (now Boulevard Ring). For what, Christmas and Vysokopetrovsky faced each against each other on the high slopes of the river Neglinnoy; Sretenskii and later Holy Monastery located on high hills. Third semicircle monasteries defended Moscow from the south. Monasteries watchman - Novodevichy, Novo-Spassky, Simonov, Andronnikov, Danilov, Don was located outside the city. They were much more urban monasteries, stood at approximately equal distances from each other and from the wall Skorodoma and a necklace of miniature towns surrounding Moscow and the Kremlin.

Patriarch Job says of the spectacle, which opened before Kazi Girey in 1591 with Sparrow Gore: "From the same uzre accursed king beauty and majesty of the imperial hail, and the great kamennogradnye walls, and gold and pokrovennye prechyudno decorated the church and the divine king and the great dostochudnye dvoekrovnye trikrovnye Chamber. "Panorama of medieval Moscow was fabulously beautiful.

Walls China-town those days were red bricks. They remained so until Board princess Sophia, who told them to bleach them.

earthen city also called Skorodomom - from light, rapid buildings. The walls formed range of irregular shape, covering the then Moscow, and separating it from suburban settlements and villages. According to one of the satellites germanskogo Ambassador Mark Vorkocha, wooden walls Skorodoma were very thick and had set of towers, which gave the city's grand and beautiful appearance, and their seemed to surround the Frenchman at the time Mardzheretu Falsdmitry greater than circumference of the walls of Paris. The then

skorodomskie Muscovites lived in communities of settlement, there were such settlements: Carpenters, Krechetniki, Trubnikov, the watchman, collars, Pushkar, Rooks (name comes from the pieces of lead, which was shot), Tolmachev, Yandovy (copper dishes), Bronnikov. Were there and the national community (mainly Tatar) eg Tatar village Balchug Taganka, Ordynka Nalivka (where they lived in mainly come from the west).

Outside Earthen town situated near Moscow those days - the village, later Sloboda - Naprudskoe, Elohovo, Rubtsovo, exemplary and others. Subsequently they been circled in the new, wider concentric circles - the Collegiate Chamber shaft.

oldest Plans of Moscow.

First reference chart picture of Moscow

Undoubtedly Beauty of Moscow has encouraged our ancestors to attempts to capture this beauty in various forms - paintings, prints, maps. Yes, the first maps of Moscow represent a veritable works of art, many of whom were "discovered" again by modern researchers of Middle Ages.

oldest reference in the monuments of n writing on the very fact of cartographic works in due to the creation of the image is in Moscow. The famous old n writer Epiphanius the Wise, author of "The Life of St. Sergius Radonezhskogo ", in his message of 1415 (the only list which preserved in the archives Solovetsky monastery) rector of Tver Savior Monastery Athanasius Cyril wrote about the surprisingly detailed wall image of Moscow in the palace of Prince Vladimir Andreevich.

Unfortunately, neither This image clearly established at the end of the XIV century, nor national maps of Moscow XV and XVI centuries, has not been preserved. All died in fire or other tragic events in our history of suffering. The earliest cartographic works in Moscow native production date from the middle of the XVII century, (ie, after the Time of Troubles).

earliest Plans of Moscow (since mid-XVI) have reached the century so far only in foreign publications. However, researchers have long been no doubt that these publication are based on the missing n originals foreign XVI-XVII centuries.

surviving early days of our plans for Moscow have been linked to the huge map activity, which followed the extensive urban development activities was undertaken by the Government of Boris Godunov at the end of the XVI century and aimed at fixation possessions of the Moscow State. Mapping of Ancient accompanied by the production plans of the most important cities and fortresses for the military-administrative and economic purposes. This work, apparently, wore systematic. The result was "a great drawing -- collection of plans, unfortunately, not survivor.

How much there cartographic images of Moscow?

first attempts answer this question and create catalogs of plans and maps of Moscow dated XVI-XVII centuries. Then were created the earliest domestic kartobibliograficheskie documents, so-called inventory or painted drawings. In 1861, the famous Slavic, Academician VI Lamansky first published information about the presence tens of cartographic images of Moscow, owned archive Secret orders of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. Today identified and described almost 200 n geographical drawings only the XVII century. Covering modern the territory of Moscow. It is interesting to note that the catalog card the next epoch 's cartography (maps, plans, blueprints, drawings and engravings Meeting Peter 1), virtually no geographic image of Moscow. In subsequent centuries made repeated attempt to directory publishing maps, of course, the best work of this type of to Moscow is the work of the famous bibliographer SA Klepikova -- "Bibliography of printed plans of Moscow XVI-XIX centuries", released of print in 1956. Catalog Klepikova contains descriptions of 242 maps of Moscow, published up to 1900

Over the past 4 decades, researchers have discovered a lot of new maps of Moscow, in including even the XVII century, for example, "Nia


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