category: Biographies

Alexander Parvus (Israel Gelfand)

Parvus Alexander L. (cf. Fam. Gel'fand, 1869-1924), member of and German Social-democratic movement, publicist. Since 1903 - a Menshevik. During World War I lived in Germany, was engaged in commercial activities. After the February Revolution was negotiating to return through Germany in n Social-Democrats, headed by VI Lenin

Used Materials kn.: "The Secret Service". Memoirs of the leaders of political investigation. Tom 1 and 2, Moscow, New Literary Review, 2004.


"His massive, giant figure (...) is now grown stout and was greasy. Under the broad, as in bull face with a high forehead, small nose, and well-groomed beard-goatee could see a saggy double chin, almost completely concealing the neck. Small bright eyes are deep set. His body, like a sack of flour, keep his short legs, and he was constantly waving his hands as if trying to keep his balance. "

So wrote about Parvus-Gelfand his confederate Estonian Artutr Seefeld.

Quoted from the book.: Heresh Elizabeth. The purchased revolution. Secret deal Parvus. Translated from the German IG Binev. M., 2005


Alexander (Israel) Lazarevic Gelfand (Parvus, Molotov, Journalism) was born in 1867 in the village Berezino Minsk province in the family of Jewish craftsmen. Studied at Odessa school. In Odessa, belonged to the People 'circles. As a 19-year boys, Parvus moved to Zurich, where he met with prominent members of the Group emancipation of labor "- GV Plekhanov, Axelrod Axelrod and Vera Zasulich. Under their influence, young Gelfand-Parvus became a Marxist, in 1887 he joined in the University of Basel, which he graduated in 1891, receiving a doctorate philosophy. Soon he moved to Germany and joined the German Social Democratic Party, not breaking, however, relations with the n Social Democrats. Became acquainted with Karl Kautsky, Clara Zetkin, V. Adler, R. Luxembourg. Very early he became interested in the German police. He had literally roam on German cities, living then in Berlin, in Dresden, then in Munich, then in Leipzig, then in Stuttgart. In Munich, Parvus met with Lenin, which, together with Krupskaya was frequently at his home. Parvus

completely deprived sense of homeland. "I am looking for the state, where people can get cheap fatherland, "- he wrote once Liebknecht. (Shub L." Merchant Revolution / / New Journal. Kn.87. New York, 1967. p. 296.)

When the n-Japanese war, Parvus has published the "Spark" several articles under the general the title "War and Revolution." In their articles the author predicted inevitable defeat of in the war with Japan, and as a result of the defeat of n - revolution. It seemed to him that "the n Revolution shook the foundations of capitalist world and the n working class is destined to play a role vanguard in the world of social revolution. "(Shub L." Merchant Revolution / / New Journal. Kn.87. New York, 1967. p. 298.) Prophecy Parvus about the outcome of n-Japanese War came true, thus strengthening its credibility as an analyst.

Parvus has given a new breath Marxist theory of "permanent revolution" and was fascinated by it Trotsky. Their acquaintance took place in autumn 1904 in Munich. (Trotsky, Lev. My life. Experience autobiography. P. 167.)

During the famine in 1898-1899 gg. we again see Parvus in our country. He carefully kept an eye on what is happening and on his return to Germany, published in co-authored with K. Lehmann thorough work on the causes of famine in . (Lehmann S. u. Parvus. Das hungernde Russland. Stuttgart, 1900)

When in October 1905 The first n Revolution broke out, Parvus arrived in St. Petersburg, and here, along with Trotsky joined the Executive Committee of the Council of Workers' Deputies, developing turbulent revolutionary activity. "For us, the revolution was the element, though very rebellious, wrote about this time Trotsky .- Everything was his hour, and its place. Some even had time to live and personal life, fall in love, make new acquaintances and even attend the revolutionary theater. Parvus so pleased with the new satirical play, that he immediately bought 50 tickets for friends on the following performance. It is necessary to clarify that he had received on the eve of an honorarium for their books. When arrested, Parvus in his pocket found a fifty theater tickets. Gendarmes long struggled with this revolutionary puzzle. They did not know that Parvus did everything in a big way ". (Lehmann S. u. Parvus. Das hungernde Russland. Stuttgart, 1900 pp. 178) A particular

assessment of Parvus in the First n Revolution can serve as words of Maxim Gorky, who in a letter to the IP Ladyzhnikov from the second half of December (Articles) 1905 wrote: "It's disgusting to see him as a demagogue To Gapon. (M. Gorky Works, Vol. cit. cit. Hudozhstv. Manuf. In 25 v. M., 1974. Vol.20. S. 539.)

for organizing revolutionary action in Parvus was convicted and sentenced to exile in settlement in Turuhansk, but ran off the road, first in St. Petersburg, and then in - Germany, which took place on a cute, almost anecdotal story, to which inadvertently was involved in Gorky. Here is what tells in his essay "Lenin" himself proletarian writer: "To the German party I had "delicate" business: a prominent member of it, then very famous Parvus had from "Knowledge" (izdatelstva. - I. Froyanov) power of attorney to collect fees from the theater for the play "The Lower Depths." He received this authorization in 902 in Sebastopol, at the station, arriving there illegally. He collected the money distributed as follows: 20% of the total amount he received, the rest divided as follows: Quarter-me three-quarters of the cashier Democrats party. Parvus is condition, of course, knew it even admired him. For four years, play bypassed theaters of Germany, in Berlin alone, was delivered more than 500 times, in Parvus gathered, it seems, 100 thousand marks. But instead of money he sent to "Knowledge" KP Pyatnitskyi letter in which he good-naturedly said that all that money he spent on the journey with a young lady in Italy. Since is probably a very pleasant journey, I am personally concerned only quarter, then found himself the right to specify the CC of the German party to the other three quarter of it. Given through the IP Ladyzhnikov. CC reacted to travel Parvus indifference. Later I heard that Parvus deprived of some party ranks, "tell the truth, I would prefer that he kicked his ears. Still later, I in Paris showed a very nice girl or a lady, saying that it is her traveled Parvus. "My dear, - I thought," dear ". (M. Gorky Works, Vol. Cit. Op. Hudozhstv. Manuf. 25 v. M., 1974. Vol.20. S. 10-11.) * 1) IP Ladyzhnikov, through whom Gorky advised the Central Committee of German Social Democratic Party of unsavory behavior Parvus, said Additional details: "Parvus has squandered the money he misappropriated from the play "The Lower Depths" in Germany. spent about 130 thousand marks. This money should have been transferred to the party funds. In December, 1909 year on behalf of Maxim Gorky and VI Lenin, I twice spoke in Berlin Bebel and Karl Kautsky to this issue, and it was decided to transfer arbitral tribunal (or rather, the party). The result was sad. Parvus suspended from editing SD newspaper and waste of money it is not covered. (M. Gorky Works, Vol. Cit. Op. Hudozhstv. Manuf. 25 v. M., 1974. Vol.20. S. 539.)

At the end of 1907 or in beginning of 1908 Parvus judged "Court Party" of Kautsky Bebel and Clara Zetkin. According to oral reminiscences LG Deich, members "court" there were the n Social-Democrats, in particular myself Deitch. (L. Shub Lenin and Wilhelm II ... S. 241.) As "not the accuser, not the witness spoke, though Gorky. (L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... S. 242. - S. 242. - Bitter, as we know, this says nothing. Moreover, He says something else. Deitch, probably got it wrong here.) By unanimous solving "court" Parvus forbidden to participate in the n and germanskom Social-democratic movement. (L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ..., p. 242. - S. 242.) That's why he moved to live in Constantinople. * 2) If the letter his friend River. Luxembourg Parvus was telling the truth, then be in Constantinople he assumed for long, only 4-5 months. However, everything turned out in another way: in Constantinople, Parvus had lived for about 5 years. It was there, as observes Shub, "began the most sensational chapter of life Rights. "(Shub L." Merchant Revolution. "S. 301.)

strange but true: Parvus became the political and financial adviser to the government of Young Turks. In Turkey, he became very rich, as indicated by his contemporaries and those who later took the life of Parvus .* 3) It seems Gelfand gained great influence in financial world, becoming a prominent figure in the "world behind the scenes".

Immediately after the announcement Germany, 's war Constantinople Telegraphic Agency published "Parvus appeal to the n socialists and revolutionaries, in which he strongly attacked the Plekhanov and other socialists who opposed Germany, accusing them of "nationalism" and "chauvinism". Parvus called n socialists and revolutionaries help defeat in the interest of European democracy. "(L. Shub, Lenin and William II ... P. 237.)

aroused Parvus wild rage and hatred. He decided to do everything to destroy it. Them helped provide the action plan, which focuses on Germany. Of course, he did not act alone, embodying the collective will of certain individuals. But outwardly it looked as if he led an independent game.

January 8, 1915 Parvus appeared to germanskomu ambassador in Constantinople, with the following background Vagenheymu statement: " democracy can achieve its goal only through the final overthrow of the tsarist and the dismemberment of into smaller state. On the other hand, Germany will not have complete success, if it will not cause a great revolution in . But the n threat to Germany did not disappear until after the war until 's State be broken up into separate parts. Interests germanskogo government and interests of the n revolutionaries thus identical. "(L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... P. 237.) Parvus, as we see, offered to destroy the historic , creating instead a conglomeration of small states.

Germanskoe Government Parvus interested in the plan and invited him to Berlin for talks, where he arrived March 6, 1915, Parvus had brought with him a lengthy memorandum "Preparation of the political mass strike in ." From this and went "wedding" Parvus with German intelligence.

memorandum contained detailed recommendations on "how to cause turmoil in and to prepare a revolution that will force the king to renounce throne, after which will form a provisional revolutionary government, which will be ready to conclude a separate peace with Germany. In pershiy turn Parvus germanskomu recommended to the Government to allocate a large amount of development and support of separatist movements among the various nationalities in Caucasus, Finland, Ukraine, then on "financial support of the Bolshevik faction of the Social-Democratic Labor Party, which is fighting against the imperial government by all means at its disposal. Its leaders are in Switzerland. "Parvus also recommended provide financial support "to the n revolutionary writers who will take part in the struggle against the tsarist regime, even during war. (L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... p. 238.) Germans had

Parvus complete location. He received Germanic passport, and after him 2 million marks "in support of the n revolutionary propaganda." (L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... P. 238.) It was only the beginning .. .

In May 1915 in Zurich Parvus met with Lenin, who listened attentively to his suggestions, not giving him a definite answer. (L. Shub, Lenin and Wilhelm II ... p. 238.) * 4) GM Katkov not without reason, contends that "the conspiracy did not happen." (Katkov GM February Revolution. S. 96.) While the content of the conversation with Lenin remained a mystery, Parvus still told the Germans that "no agreement with Lenin and decided to carry out his plan for revolution in itself. " (Katkov GM February Revolution. S. 95.) * 5) Katkov correctly observes that Lenin's defeatism fundamentally different from the plan Parvus destruction . (Katkov GM February Revolution. 95.)

Lenin probably felt, who now has a deal in the face of Parvus. Therefore, he subsequently refers to "the merchant of the revolution" cold and hostile, kept him on distance. It is known that after the overthrow of the Provisional Government through Parvus Radek asked Lenin to allow him to return to . Lenin said in response : "The point of the revolution should not be tainted by dirty hands." (Shub L. "Merchant Revolution. S. 321-322. )

should be noted that Lenin's attitude to Parvus has evolved from best to worst. First he spoke well of Parvus as a scientist and writer. In a letter to AN Potresov on January 26, 1899, Lenin wrote: "As for Parvusa-I have not the slightest presentation of his personal character and did not deny it big talent. "(VI Lenin, Collected op. V.46. S. 21.) In his review of Parvus book "The World Market and the agricultural crisis", published by in St. Petersburg in 1898, Lenin calls the author "a talented Germanic publicist "and" strongly "recommends" to all readers interested marked (retsenzentom. - I. Froyanov) issues, familiarity with Parvus book, "because" it makes a wonderful contrast walking populist arguments about modern agricultural crisis, constantly encountered in the populist press, and that sin significant drawback: the fact of the crisis is considered outside the context of the overall development of world capitalism, will only be considered in order to extract middle-class morality of the vitality of small-scale peasant economy. "(Lenin, I. Complete Collection op. V.46. S. 60,61-62.) Book K. Lehmann and Parvus "Starving ", which appeared in Germany, Lenin called interesting. (VI Lenin, Collected op. V.46. S. 421.) Located in Shushenskoye, exile Lenin asked his mother, M. A. Ulyanov, send articles Parvus against Bernstein. (VI Lenin, Collected op.

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