category: Biographies

Sergei Bulgakov

Perevezentsev SV

Sergey Nikolaevich Bulgakov (1871-1944) was born in Livny Orel province, in the family priest. In his youth he studied at a religious school Lieven and Orel Theological Seminary, in 1890-1894 gg. - Faculty of Law Moscow University. In his student years, SN Bulgakov is fond of Marxism especially Marxist political economy. In 1895, SN Bulgakov began taught political economics at Moscow Technical College. In 1897 he went into publication of his first major work - "On the markets under the capitalist production ". After two-year trip abroad to Germany France and Britain, SN Bulgakov defended his master's thesis "Capitalism and Agriculture", also written in the Marxist tradition. Is no accident, GV Plekhanov called the young scientist "hope n Marxism ".

In 1901-1906 gg. SN Bulgakov lived in Kiev, leading teaching in Kiev Polytechnic Institute, where he was elected a full professor, and University of Kiev in the position of Privatdozent. It was during this period is disappointing Bulgakov in Marxism, and especially materialism. In 1903 he published a collection of articles entitled "From Marxism to idealism "and took part in the collective collection" Problems idealism. "In 1904, he, together with NA Berdyaev starts editing magazines "New Way" and "questions of life." Occupying enough active political stance in 1903, SN Bulgakov attended illegal congress of the Union of Liberation ", which started the future Cadet Party.

In 1906 SN Bulgakov moved to Moscow, where he became a professor of political economy in Moscow Commercial Institute and at the same time, he was appointed privat-docent at Moscow University. In 1906 he took part in establishment of the Union of Christian politics, "and in 1907 was elected II of the State Duma deputy from the province of Orel. SN Bulgakov plays prominent role in the Religious-Philosophical Society of memory VS Solovyov.

In these years, SN Bulgakov finally formed as a religio-philosophical thinker, participates in the famous collection of "Milestones" (1909), in 1911 year, publishes articles in two volumes of "The Two Cities." In 1912 published book "The Philosophy of Economy", in which the author from the position religious philosophy of considering all the problems of political economy and social philosophy. The actual extension of this book was the work of Light Unfading. Contemplation and meditation "(1917), were the culmination of previous period's philosophical development SN Bulgakov.

In 1917 Sergey actively participated in the All- Local Council who restored the Patriarchate in . In 1918, SN Bulgakov took priestly san. In the same year, Bulgakov and his family left Moscow and moved to the Crimea. Here he wrote a number of philosophical works ( "The tragedy of Philosophy," Philosophy of the name, etc.). Most modern scholars believe that these works completed own philosophical period of Bulgakov's work, and then he has focused on theological issues.

In 1922 SN Bulgakov was expelled by the Soviet authorities in Turkey, where he soon moved to Prague. In 1922-1925 gg. He was professor of ecclesiastical law and Theology at the Faculty of n scientific institute in Prague. Summer 1925 Bulgakov moved to Paris, where he began working as a professor of theology and Dean of the Orthodox Theological Institute.

In years of emigration, SN Bulgakov is engaged in many theological and Church and legal issues, publishes a number of theological studies -- "Orthodoxy," "Burning Bush", "Apocalypse John "trilogy -" The Lamb of God, "" Comforter " "Bride of the Lamb" and other theological and church activities SN Bulgakov received a mixed review in Orthodox circles. His attempts substantiate the idea of Sofia were regarded as heretical deviation, giving dogma fourth hypostasis of the Holy Trinity. Negative was perceived and active ecumenical activities SN Bulgakov.

Sergey Nikolaevich Bulgakov died July 13, 1944 in Paris and was buried in the n cemetery in Sainte-Genevieve-des-Bois.

Main essay SN Bulgakov: "Two Cities", "Philosophy economy "," with the unfading Light, "" Quiet City Council, "The tragedy of philosophy," Burning Bush " "Orthodoxy".

Religious and Philosophical outlook SN Bulgakov developed in line with sophiology (ie the doctrine of Sofia) and philosophy of unity, which had begun in the philosophical system VS Solovyov. By

conviction SN Bulgakov, Sophia is between God and the sons of the world, between the Creator and creature. Thus Sofia itself is neither one nor the other, but something very special, while connecting and dividing both. Sofia - it sverhtvarny personal aspect, personified in principle femininity, which Bulgakov described as "eternal feminine." "The eternal feminine" is a kind of "mother's womb Being ", which takes the creative power of God and embodies it in the world. Therefore Bulgakov gave Sophia quality "incarnation" - the fourth hypostasis, which is not at the same time the fourth person of the Holy Trinity. Sofia, as hypostasis - is "an ideal basis for peace", and the world itself is only becoming Sofia. It

Sofia lies at the basis of "unity" and the actual amounts "unity", because it conceives of itself all manifesting themselves intelligible world, one and all, vseedinoe, becoming the beginning of the world and its supreme perfection.

In Essentially, Sofia - a love that unites all spiritual beings free intercom. Consequently, all the world has Sophian, combined Sophian. Bulgakov distinguishes between unconscious and conscious levels Sophian. The unconscious Sophian associated with heart and soul of the world - the creative force, which pervades the whole world and gives it tselesooobraznost. Sofia is the same fulfilled, has reached self-consciousness, gained its face soul.

So the one hand, Sofia connects God with the created world, is a peculiar intermediary between heaven and earth. But, on the other hand, the primordial sin humanity leads to the fact that Sofia loses a direct connection to heaven. So way, a single duality Sofia - Sofia Sofia and Divine creaturely. And the task of the philosopher to find a way to reunite the original single Sofia connection to the Divine Sophia and Sophia creaturely. Therefore

central problem sophiology as ideology, is the problem relationship between God and the world, between God and man. After all, people in which connects the divine and created the beginning, can perform similar mission. Man - a key date in the heavenly and earthly, as he wrote Bulgakov, in relative and absolute relative absolute. If a man will prevail relative, then it will turn its potential Man-in selfishness and demonic. So man's task is to combine human relative to the divine absolute. In other words, Bulgakov developed ideas VS Solovyov about God-manhood, as the goals and process human history. But

in reality the history of mankind is the history of chaos alienated from Sofia in the world. Consequently, the Earth human history - it is only a moment Sofia creaturely existence, a point which must necessarily end. Therefore Bulgakov's philosophy is very strong eschatological mood - he was confident finiteness of the world: "The purpose of history is the history, the" life of the century, and the goal is peace for peace, to the "new earth and new Skies. Eschatology Bulgakov has two aspects: the historical and moral. Historically - the world is a process theanthropic, during which man returns to God. In the moral sense - people are what must return to the lost perfection by overcoming the old nature and acquisition of a new nature.

In this process a person has a certain activity, which Bulgakov characterizes the term "synergy", ie cooperation, complicity man with God. But this man does not have absolute freedom: "Freedom extends only to the course of historical process, but not on its outcome. "On the contrary, in the opinion of the n philosopher, in being human reigns need posed by the providence of God: "God's providence through appropriate leading man, is therefore the supreme law history ".

Researchers mark another important moment in the religious and philosophical ideas SN Bulgakov - the doctrine of "apokatastatise. Apokatastasis - is the idea final restoration and salvation of all creatures, including those convicted of the terrible flour fallen angels. The origin of this doctrine was the philosophy of Origen (III in.) developed later Gregory of Nyssa (IV cent.). But already in the VI century on the Fifth Ecumenical Council of the doctrine apokatastasise was convicted of official Christian Church as heretical. However

SN Bulgakov accepted the idea apokatastasisa, because only it is fully fit into his Sophiological concept, because the principles and sophiology ones require that in the salvation of the world left no survivors, affected entities. According to Bulgakov, sinful souls are doomed to "eternal", but not endless suffering in hell. Gradual process should lead to a complete rescue of all creation and the attainment of a final, eternal unity and Sophian in God.

C terms of the philosophy of unity SN Bulgakov considered and questions knowability of the world. He believed that there should be a synthesis of science, philosophy and theology, and on this basis, the creation world view, which would allow person to understand the true spiritual values, to find the right path to God, to the very themselves and to others.

But as you can see the spiritual and religious and philosophical search for SN Bulgakov was ambiguous. Well on this occasion said NA Berdyaev: "I am very critical to Bulgakov's the type of religious thought, and I want him religiously resist. But the way Bulgakov Bulgakov quests are important and be appreciated ... He is very n, and experiences of religious crisis is important for the fate of the n consciousness. In the face of Bulgakov's like n intellectuals broke with its atheistic and materialistic past and moves to the religious consciousness, and Christianity. This - the process much deeper ".

References

For preparation of this work were used materials from the site portal-slovo/


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