category: Psychology

disposition theory of personality (G. W. Allport)

Allport defines identity as the real essence of each person., unique in its uniqueness. Personality scientist describes what lies beyond the specific actions of people. within himself. "Personality - a dynamic organization of those psychophysical systems within the individual that determine characteristic of his behavior and thinking. "It is not a static entity, although it has a fundamental structure that is constantly evolving.

addition physical constitution of the intellect and temperament - is the primary genetic material from which the personality. It is particularly important hereditary aspect of the emotional nature of people. (along with the ease of emotional excitation, the dominant background mood, mood swings, intensity of emotions). Character is the notion of ethical and traditional associated with a certain moral standard or value system, in accordance which evaluated the actions of the individual. By the wording of Allport, character -- is estimated personality, and personality - is invaluable character.

most important unit of analysis of what constitutes a people and how they in their behavior differ from each other, is a personal trait. Allport defined it as neuropsychology, structure, able to transform functional equivalent incentives to stimulate and guide equivalent (in mean susceptible) forms of adaptive and expressive behavior. Poverty - a predisposition to behave in a similar manner in a wide range of situations. The set features provide stability behavior of people., Its visibility, predictability. A variety of stimuli cause the same responses, as well as the reaction in the form of feelings, feelings, interpretations, actions have same function value. Personality traits do not reside in a dormant condition. Situations in which a person is most often - is how usually the same ones in which it actively seeks to reach.

In late works Allport features are called dispositions, among which three types: cardinal, central and secondary. Cardinal disposition, or Chap. passion, have very few people. This extremely degree of generalized disposition, so piercing behavior that almost all the actions of people. can be reduced to its influence. Among individuals with such disposition can be called Don Juan, Joan of Arc, Albert Schweitzer. The central dispositions are building blocks of identity and represent such tendencies in the behavior of people. which are easily detected around and mentioned in letters of recommendation (eg, punctuality, attentiveness, responsibility). Secondary dispositions less visible, less stable, less generalized features, such as food preferences and clothing, due to situational characteristics, specific installation.

person not is a set of disparate dispositions, it implies unity, integration all the structural elements of individuality. There is a certain principle organization assessments, motives, inclinations, feelings into a coherent whole, which Allport proposes calling propriumom. Proprium is a positive creative, and eager to grow and growing feature of human nature, perceived as the most important and central. It is about this part subject. experience as "mine" about the self. Proprium is some organizing and unifying force, the purpose of which - the formation of unique human life.

Allport identifies seven aspects of the self involved in the development propriuma from childhood to maturity, calling them proprioticheskimi functions. As a result, their final formed by the consolidation of "I" as an object of the subject, knowledge and experience. Stages of development propriuma: 1) the feeling of his body, forming a bodily self, which remains throughout the life support for self-awareness, 2) sense of identity, significant moment that stands awareness of themselves through speech as a definition, and an important person, a sense integrity and continuity of self, associated with the name of the child; 3) self-esteem as a sense of pride about the fact that certain actions already carried out independently; most important source of self-esteem throughout childhood, and 4) expanding the boundaries of the self that occurs as awareness of children that belong to them not only their physical body, but some significant elements of the external world, including humans, 5) self-image, when the child begins to focus on the expectations of significant loved ones, imagining what "I'm good" and "I'm bad"; 6) Good governance itself, is a stage expressed conformism, moral and social obedience, when the child learns to deal rationally life problems, dogmatic belief that the family, peers, and religion always right; 7) propriativnoe desire, is staging perspective life goals, a sense that life has meaning. Above

propriumom is knowledge itself, synthesizing listed ontogenetic stage and a subjective side of "I" conscious "I-objective. At concludes stage proprium correlated with unique ability to attendees. to self-knowledge and self-awareness.

individual is a dynamic (profiling) developing systems. Adequate theory motivation, according to Allport, should be considered long-term goals pers., his intentions. The key to understanding people. is the answer to the question: "What do want to do in five years? ". By Allport, the person is free from past-due to past history, rather than functional. Maturation

people. - A continuous, lifelong process of becoming. Behavior mature subjects, in contrast to the neurotic subjects, functional autonomy and motivated by conscious processes. A mature person is characterized by features: 1) has a broad boundary "I", 2) is capable of warm, cordial social relations, and 3) demonstrates the emotional neozabochennost and self-acceptance, 4) has a healthy sense of reality; 5) has the ability to to self-knowledge and sense of humor; 6) has a coherent philosophy of life. Theory

Allport popular among practicing clinical psychologists, psychoanalysts.

List References

T. M. Titarenko. Disposition theory of personality (G. W. Allport)


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