category: Psychology

Motivation of criminal behavior
Precondition of human behavior, the source of its activity is needed. Needing to certain conditions, chelovekstremitsya to the elimination of the deficit. Emerging needs is motivational excitation (corresponding nerve centers) and pobuzhdaetorganizm to a certain type of activity. It enlivened all the necessary mechanisms of memory, processed data on the presence of external conditions and on osnoveetogo formed by purposeful action. So, to update the need for the cause of some neuro-physiological state - the motivation.
Thus, the motivation - due to the need for stimulation of certain neural structures (functional systems), causing organism directed activity.
From a motivational state depends on the tolerance of the cerebral cortex of various sensory impulses, their enhancement or oslablenie.Effektivnost external stimulus depends not only on its objective qualities, but also on the motivational state of the organism (When the feeling of passion, the body can not stanetreagirovat the most attractive woman) < br /> Hence, due to the need motivational state characterized by the fact that the brain at the same time simulates the parameters of objects that are necessary to meet the needs and patterns of activity on the mastery of the object. These schemes program behavior - can be ilivrozhdennymi, instinctive, or based on individual experience, or re-created from elements of experience.
Implementation of activities is controlled by comparing the progress of intermediate and final results from the fact that bylozaranee programmed. Meeting the needs removes stress and motivation, causing a positive emotion, "says" this viddeyatelnosti (including it in the fund of useful action). Unmet needs cause negative emotions, motivational enhancement voltage ivmeste with this - search activity. Thus, the motivation - individualized mechanism relating the internal and external factors determining sposobypovedeniya given individual.
In the animal world behaviors are determined by reflex correlation with current external environment, nasuschnymiorganicheskimi needs. Thus, starvation causes certain actions depending on the external situation. In human life itself vneshnyayaobstanovka can actualize different needs. Thus, in a criminally dangerous situation, one man is guided only by organic potrebnostyusamosohraneniya, another dominant performance requirement of civic duty, the third - to show prowess in combat, distinguish themselves and so All forms and sposobysoznatelnogo human behavior is determined by its relationship to various aspects of reality. Motivational human condition differ otmotivatsionnogo of animals that are regulated by the second signal system - a word. Hence the move to the types of motivational states rights.
By motivational states rights include: installation, interests, desires, aspirations and inclinations.
Installation - is stereotyped to act in a given situation in a certain way. This willingness kstereotipnomu behavior occurs on the basis of past experience. Plants are the unacknowledged foundation of behavioral acts, which are not recognized nor tseldeystviya, no need, for which it is committed. Distinguish the following types of installations
1.Situativno-motor (motor) installation (for example, the willingness of the cervical vertebrae to the movement of the head)
2.Sensorno-perceptive installation (waiting call, the allocation of meaningful signal from background sounds)
3.Sotsialno-perceptive installation - stereotypes of social objects (eg, the presence tatuirovokinterpretiruetsya criminalized as a sign of identity)
4.Kognitivnaya - cognitive installation (bias of the investigator regarding the guilt of the suspect is kdominirovaniyu in his mind inculpatory evidence, exculpatory evidence relegated to the background)
5.Mnemicheskaya installation - installation on memorization of meaningful material.
Motivation is a mental condition of human reflection of the conditions necessary for human life kakorganizma, the individual and the individual. This is a reflection of the necessary conditions is carried out in the form of interests, desires, aspirations and inclinations.
Interest - the selective attitude to the objects and phenomena as a result of understanding their meaning and emotional perezhivaniyaznachimyh situations. Interests of rights determined by the system's needs, but the relationship of interests with the needs not straightforward, and sometimes not understood. The assessment of the needs of the interests are divided on the content (material and spiritual) in latitude (limited and versatile) iustoychivosti (short-term and stable). Are distinguished as direct and indirect interests (for example, shown by the seller to the buyer interesyavlyaetsya indirect interest, while its direct interest is the sale of goods). Interests may be positive or negative. They tolkostimuliruyut rights to work, but they themselves are formed in it. In the interests of people closely related to his wishes.
Wishes - motivational state in which the needs are related to the specific subject of their satisfaction. Eslipotrebnost can not be satisfied in this situation, but this situation can be created, then the focus of consciousness to create such situatsiinazyvaetsya desire. Aspiration with a clear presentation of the necessary means and ways of action is the intention. A variety stremleniyayavlyaetsya passion - a persistent emotional commitment to a particular object, the need for which is dominant over all other needs and pridaetsootvetstvuyuschuyu orientation of all human activities.
The predominant desire of man to certain types of activities are his tendencies, and the state of obsessive tyagoteniyak certain group of objects - pursuits.
Motivational states mobilize the consciousness to find appropriate targets and the adoption of specific solutions. The adoption of resheniyao specific action associated with knowledge of the motive of this action, conceptual modeling of its future results. Motive - this is an argument in polzuizbiraemogo actions, conscious motivation to achieve a specific goal, a necessary element of conscious, willful, deliberate action.
Thus, the concept of motivation includes all kinds of motives of human behavior. Motive - a conscious element of motivation.
The basis of all criminal legal theories, based on the very notion of crime is the notion of volitional deystviya.Psihologichesky analysis of the criminal act - an analysis of the psychological content of structural elements of the offense.
Intentional behavior is characterized by conscious of its regulation, understanding the essence of its phenomena, their relationship iprichinno inquiry conditionality.
To understand the phenomenon - which means to see his real connection to the objective world. Conscious regulation based naznanii - conceptual reflection phenomena of the real world. Willful, deliberate action is characterized by anticipation of future result of action - egotseli. Goal formation - the most important sphere of human conscious activity. Realizing a particular need, their interests, the person analyzes realnyeusloviya and mentally represent a number of possible behaviors for the implementation of goals that can satisfy his desires, feelings and aspirations in these conditions. Then, weigh the pros and cons of possible options for action, and the man stops at odnomiz them optimal for its ideas. This choice is justified by some objective argument in his favor - the motive. Hence, the motive - it osoznannyychelovekom personal sense of his actions, the realization of this objective relationship to the satisfaction of the impulses.
We must distinguish the concept of "motive" and "motivation". Motivation - is the total impulse activity in a specific napravlenii.Naibolee elementary form of motivation is desire - subconscious experience requirements, mainly of biological nature. Vlecheniyane have a certain focus and do not generate specific volitional act. Outline the goals are formed at the stage of desire, but desire is unrelated to a decision. At the next stage preddeystviya, at the stage aspirations, a man decides to act in a certain way napravleniiopredelennym certain difficulties. It contemplated the conditions and means of achieving encountered intentions, the possibility of their realization. Vrezultate emerging intent to commit a certain action (in relation to the crime occurs criminal intent)
Human behavior is activated by a wide range of motives, which are a modification of its needs: inclinations, interests, aspirations, desires, feelings. Specific same human action recognition system concepts. The man understands why should reach imennodannuyu goal, he weighs it on scales of their concepts and ideas.
Encouraging activity in a certain direction can be both positive and negative feelings: curiosity, altruism, selfishness, greed, greed, jealousy, etc.
However, the feelings, being a common impulse to a kind of action by themselves are not the motive of action. Thus, the selfish aspirations can be satisfied by different actions. Motive - is the closure of the motivation for a particular purpose. Can not be conscious, nobezmotivnyh actions.
Thus, the entire complex motif preddeystviya based on a specific motivation - at some common motive. But the choice konkretnoytseli, otchlenenie this purpose from other possible courses of action driven by motive. Conscious choice of this goal - this is motivdeystviya.
The Criminal Code of RF motives and motivations are not clear distinctions. Some of the motifs are "greed", "korystnyepobuzhdeniya", "vendetta", "racial or national hatred", etc.
Lack of understanding of the motives, mixed with impulses creates difficulties in the implementation of relevant legal norms.
The criminal act may be committed on the basis of a complex system of motivations (eg, murder on the basis of location, anger ilirevnosti).
Notion of "base motives", and especially the notion of "personal motives" can not exhaust the whole complex sistemudeystvitelnyh intentions and motives of the criminal act. For example, "hooliganism". The range of this kind of motivation is very wide - it may be iozorstvo, bravado, self-indulgence, on the one hand, and hatred towards people mizantropstvo, on the other. And in general, whether there is a "tough motive"? After vosnove bullying is not very bullying and neglect the interests of society, honor and dignity of people around.
It should be noted that there are no criminal motives. Man is responsible for the public opasnoedeystvie, not the meaning of this action for a given individual. Motives may be lowly and exalted, worthy and unworthy, social polozhitelnymii antisocial. The motives and goals as well as actions - the concept of psychological, but in the criminal act, they become criminal pravovoeznachenie.
In the unwary crimes no direct motive to commit a crime, and crime are the result does not coincide with the objectives of motivamii action.
These crimes are linked to defects in the regulation of behavior: the goal is accompanied by criminal byproduct of zanedostatochnoy capacity of the subject to anticipate the consequences of their actions. But why, and to identify the motive of this action, because ONV this case is essential to determine the form of guilt, for the disclosure of the subjective aspect of the crime.
... Two friends, employees of the oxygen plant, sat at the evaporator. It was a hot summer. One of them said: "It would be nice seychasohladitsya!". Another quickly turned back the flap, resulting in said, was frozen to death who had broken pairs of oxygen ...
It would seem, in this case there is no direct motive to commit a crime, and crime are the result does not coincide with the objectives of motivamii action. Here, the motivation of criminal behavior is at first glance, the inadequate of the act.
This kind of crime, but rather be called wanton, but the "Collapse motive, his situational neoznachaet his absence. This pulsed operation was not criminal purpose and the corresponding motif, but this worked stereotyped willingness deystvovatlegkomyslenno, recklessly, under the influence of individual isolated representations ...

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