Psychological signs of insincerity

We identified the main components that form the basis for identifying and insincerity desire to manipulate the partner: features of voice and speech, eye movement and mimicry; line gestures content information; especially technology transfer information.

Vladimir Shepel, the therapist-consultant, practicing psychoanalyst. Corresponding Member of the International Academy Psychological Science.

Study literature, conducted their own research, analysis of the behavior of individuals, offenders, would provide the following main blocks which form the basis for the identification of insincerity and aspirations manipulate the partner in communication: peculiarities of voice and speech, eye movement and facial expressions, gestures and poses match the content of the transmitted information; especially the content and technology transfer information.

In most cases, trying to determine the sincerity of his interlocutor, the people tend to see him. However, scientists believe changes in rates even more reliable indicators than the expression. Indeed, voice and features speech are extremely informative indicator of emotional state rights.

One of the reasons why the analysis of changes in rates contributes to the successful display lies, lies in the fact that the man because of acoustics of the skull and other features perception of his own voice heard in a different way than he says it really is. It quite clearly can fix each at a time when it comes hear my voice, recorded on tape. People trying to lie, seek to control their behavior, including the sound of voices, but they can not know for sure at this moment, how they do it, so how can full control of his own voice sounding quite difficult.

Study literary sources and the holding of a special series of training sessions with subsequent processing of the results allowed us to distinguish the following most characteristic signs of insincerity, including anxiety, manifested in voice and speech in the transmission of false information:

involuntary change of tone;

modified speech rate;

modified deep voice;

appearance tremor in her voice;

appearance pauses while answering questions that were not supposed to cause difficulties;

too quick answers to questions that should give food for thought;

appearance in speech expressions, atypical for a given person in the ordinary intercourse or extinction typical of his words and phrases;

demonstrative underscore (selection) by means of speech (intonation, pauses, etc.) any fragments of information transmitted, masking or distorting the truth attitude to it. Last

sign refers to a group of techniques used deliberately to lguschim disorientation of another person, and can serve as an indicator lies in the compared with other data. In routine practice, when it is possible to see that this is the reception of such cases we say that man "outplayed" in an attempt something to inspire another.

In Unlike the human voice is better able to control his face. Rely solely on a person is difficult, because it has too many parameters requiring analysis for indication of falsehood.

Focusing face communication partner to indicate a lie, the observer often draws attention to the following parameters:

?cursorial view. It is traditionally celebrated on grounds related to the fact that people do not used to lie or experiencing for other reasons during a false alarm statements, with difficulty "keeping sight" companion and looks aside;

light smile. According to studies, this smile is often accompanied by false statement, although it may be only a form of manifestation of individual style communication. The smile that accompanies a lie, allows you to hide the internal tension but not always seem quite natural;

microstrain facial muscles. At the time a false report of a person as a "shadow runs". Videography can capture with a short-term stress in terms those lasting a split second.

control partner at the time of the false statements. On this ground the first time we drew attention during training sessions. Telling a lie, some participants in short time to focus on the partner's face, as if trying to assess how successfully they have managed to mislead it. Such reaction was observed in the future and in other situations;

vegetative reaction. These include facial flushing or its individual parts, vibration of the lips, eye pupil dilation, rapid blinking, and other changes characteristic of the feelings of shame, fear and other emotions that accompany insincerity on a subconscious level, people are not accustomed to lie and squirm. Almost

any reaction partner in communication can be interpreted differently in depending on whether it is a natural manifestation of the individual communication style and possible for a given person in this situation or whether this reaction due to other causes, including the desire to conceal the true attitude to the discussion. For example, video training sessions on recognize insincerity possible to detect some participants following typical reaction: at the time a false report, they just nod head, as if increasing the reliability of his words (the same goes for smile). However, such responses as signs of insincerity were not typical for all course participants.

Researchers direction, which has received abroad called "body language, stress, that the interpretation of gestures, facial expressions, postures and other non-verbal components of communication should be undertaken in the context of analyzing the entire situation. It is disparity between the content of expressions external manifestations related to this the saying often speculating about the presence of insincerity. So, statement like "I am very interested" in conjunction with the "missing", not focused on the communication partner look crossed his arms and legs or ironic smile makes us think about the possibility of the presence insincerity.

Allan Pease take the liberty to allocate a separate series of gestures, which, in his view, accompanied by lies, doubt and fraud:

gesture "Hand-to-face. The observation that liars often use this gesture, confirmed experiment, in which it was noted that nurses, patients on lguschie their health status, more often raised his hand to a person than their colleagues who spoke the truth;

gesture "Cover your mouth. Covering his mouth with his hand, fingers or fist, as well as coughing to cover the mouth also found in the arsenal of liars. In cases where such gesture associated with the estimated positions, gathered together palm rests on the cheek, and finger often shows up.

gesture "Touching the nose. At the time of insincerity, people often use light rubbing the nose or quick touch to it, which, unlike actual scratching the nose do not look so obviously;

gesture "Rubbing his eyes." When a lie big men tend to turn off and rub them, and women - can easily relate to his eyes and rubbed the area under the eye. This gesture can be combined with clenched teeth and a fake smile;

gesture "Delay in the collar. A. Pease, referring to studies D. Morris, binds gesture with a slight irritation in sensitive tissues of the face and neck, arising during a false statement because of the appearance of sweat. What

Concerning the analysis of information contents to detect insincerity, then our results largely coincided with the symptoms of lies ", dedicated A. Zakatovym from a study of investigative practices and literary sources. Below is a system based on clues lie found based on the analysis of information contents.

1. This contradicts other statements gathered on the subject of information, as well as contradiction within the information itself.

Lies difficult to think of all the details, so the liar is trying to remember what considers the most important among them meaningful circumstances. Some of them preparation for lies in general they are not conceptualized. Often lying is a chain character - one may lead to another, one distorted fact compels adjustments and others. All this requires serious effort and time that often prevents liar carefully and all this in mind. Main reception identify - clarifying the issues, with emphasis on detailing the facts.

2. Uncertainty, vagueness of the information contained in disinformation.

Cause - A statement that it had not been experienced and therefore only the surface was fixed in memory or was quickly forgotten (although the preparation and thinking lies). The lack of real activity, which would be included one way or another described the events and facts, makes presentation lies deprived of the active component (including on the grammatical level).

3. Excessive, deliberate accurate description of events (especially in remote time) - a consequence of learning a prepared false information.

4. The coincidence in minute detail message several interviewees. Usually

Several people who watched the same event, do not give him same description. This has several reasons: the individual psychological differences, differences in mental state at the time of deployment events differences in the degree of active involvement in current events, the differences in points monitor events, selective attention and perception. Consequently this - the attention of each of the participants more or less equally attracted most vivid and "major" signs, the details as they are perceived by most individually, which should influence the nature of the transmitted information.

5. The absence of a description of minor details and details (including natural for the interviewee style, and intellectual features).

invented past passive, artificially, but not experienced by the subject. Sole purpose construction of such a "past" - misleading, and this leads to one-sided description and selection of parts. Disappear nonessential additives and those that are typical for the person with the real experience similar events.

6. Miscellaneous (not substantiated by anything other than the desire to deceive) an explanation of some and the same events at different stages of communication.

Often transformation explanation is due forgetting the man parts of its past fictional explanations, which prompts him to give a new interpretation of events.

7. Extremely positive information about himself and no doubt about in the interpretation of events (not due to the relevant personal features).

Truth man does not make him stop, and before outlining what could it unprofitable to characterize (the partial concealment of "negative"). True, people usually do not hide from them and emerging doubts about the explanation certain facts that do not usually characteristic of a liar.

8. The insistent, repeated (obsessive) Proactive repetition of any claims (not due to neutral reasons). Eastern wisdom reads: "You told me the first time - and I believe it. You repeated - and I doubted. You said a third time - and I realized that you're lying ?.

9. "Progovorki" (reservations) in the course of communication, ie, involuntary reliable message information as a result of the conflict of competition in the mind of true and false versions of explanation or description of events.

10. Not typical for this person (taking into account the level of overall development and Education) expressions, the terms and phraseological turnovers - Certificate memorizing information (perhaps prepared by others).

11. Depleted emotional background of expression - consequence of the lack of real emotions at the time of deployment of the "real" events.

correct talk about the inadequacy of the emotional background of personal meaning of events, so except as sketchy, anonymity and emotional pallor may, though rarely meet and deliberately exaggerated emotionality.

12. Inappropriate repeated references to their good faith and disinterest.

Excessive from posting such virtues is in doubt the veracity of information.

13. Evading a direct answer to the question, attempts to create the impression that this question is not understood or forgotten ?.

14. Hiding the fact that there can not be known to the speaker, or forgetfulness on a very personal and important events (not explained by psychological protection).

Availability humans to manipulation by other trends with lies is formed when relevant premises upbringing and development for a long time. Therefore, the methods by which people are accustomed to use such warehouse, very individual. There may be cases when lguschy ahead of the event. Knowing that he could be suspected of insincerity, he begins to tell his version of what happened to form a partner psychological precept of subsequent perception of unfavorable information. Diagnostic element detection of this method is the analysis of the appropriateness of utterances on the subject, reliability of presentation which may be questioned. What

a man expressed ability to "Machiavellianism", the less likely determine his insincerity on external features. In such cases, more emphasis on content analysis of information and think through the tactics asked questions. It's easier to tell the truth, when it is possible for this prepare. External signs of anxiety noticeable when lguschemu confronted with questions whose answers he could not prepare advance.

Problem detect insincerity is extremely difficult because of the multiplicity factors that are subject to analysis. Therefore, an experienced person can often accurately determine the lie, but will be in trouble if you ask him he did it. An attempt to systematize signs of possible presence of insincerity, allows a more focused approach the development of communicative competence of people involved in politics, business, working in the public management.

References

For preparation of this work were used materials from the site elitarium/


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