category: Biology

hepatopathy dogs

MV Ukolova, PhD student Department of Veterinary Pathology PFUR

liver disease (hepatopathy) in dogs are actual problem for practicing veterinarians. Hepatopathy difficult to treatment often relapse, can be fatal. Hepatic failure (hepatopathy) is a condition in which a decrease in one or more functions of the liver below the level necessary to ensure the normal life of the organism.

notion of liver failure is very amorphous and uncertain, due to the lack of morphological substrate. Equate hepatic failure and cirrhosis, fibrosis, hepatitis or hepatotoxicity can not. The liver in this regard - Body unique, one of the manifestations of the uniqueness - Long-term compensation function, which to characterize the function of the liver on the basis of morphological change is not possible. Another difficulty in determining liver failure is the heterogeneity of its manifestations (acute and chronic form, 3 stages of development), and not so much a manifestation as such, as pathogenetic mechanisms of development. Mechanisms of hepatic failure before the end has not yet been studied

Classification

There are several variants of classifications based etiological factors, pathogenetic processes and forms.

1. The perspective of the pathogenetic mechanisms of hepatic insufficiency divided:

first option - the true, or hepatocellular insufficiency.

second option - hepatic encephalopathy, otherwise it called portosistemnoy encephalopathy or ammonium coma.

third option - Electrolyte coma, or coma state associated with gipokaliemiey.

fourth option - holistaticheskaya coma.

fifth option, which is not independent, develops as a heavy mixed disorders of the liver and their complications.

2. Adrift distinguish between acute and chronic hepatic failure. Acute liver failure develops quickly, for several hours or days, and with timely treatment may be reversible. Chronic liver failure develops gradually, over several weeks or months, but the accession provoking factors (toxic substances, interkurentnaya infection, physical exhaustion, receiving high doses of diuretics or cross-sectional deleting a large amount of ascitic fluid, etc.) can quickly provoke the development of hepatic coma.

3. By histological basis of disease are divided into hepatocellular (true hepatocellular insufficiency, accompanied by a decrease in metabolism of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and etc.), infiltrative (cancer, a manifestation of systemic granulomatous disease, such as tuberculosis, systemic mycosis) Cholestasis. (defeat zhelechevyvodyaschey system which violated excretory and secretory function of hepatocytes).

Etiology

There are two groups of causes leading to the development of hepatic deficiency: liver and extrahepatic. The first group includes pathological processes localized in the liver and biliary tract. Before all it is - the nature of viral hepatitis (viral hepatitis, plague, parvovirus enteritis, etc.)., rarely Hepatitis B may be bacteria spirochete, rickettsiae, piroplazmy, Bartonella, (1, 2, 3).

frequently encountered toxic hepatitis, developing under the influence of hepatotropic toxic substances: industrial poisons (CCl4, benzene, toluene, chloroform, ether, arsenic, phosphorus and etc.), plant poisons (inedible mushrooms), etc. Liver pathology provoked by iatrogenic causes - the use of antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (4), steroids (5, 6, 7, 8), antiparasitic drugs - for example, ivomekom (9), antipiritikami - paracetamol (10)

The first group of causes of malnutrition are also (hepatosis), cirrhosis, stones, primary tumor or inflammation biliary tract with marked cholestasis, genetic defects of hepatocytes.

second group of causes of liver failure include pathological processes localized outside the liver: extreme states (shock, collapse, sepsis, major trauma, burns), chronic heart or renal failure, endocrine disease - estrogen, diabetes diabetes, protein deficiency, hypovitaminosis - folic acid, pantothenic acid, choline, etc.

Liver diseases occur regardless of the season years, animals of any age. There is a predisposition to pedigree hepatopathy due to genetically inherited fermentopathy, such congenital copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers (11) and Dobermans. Copper intoxication is accompanied by the development of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver due to increasing concentrations of copper in the lysosomes of hepatocytes (12, 13). Violation metabolism tsiankobalamina a Giant Schnauzers (14) contributes development of fatty degeneration of hepatocytes.

Pathogenesis hepatopathy

The role of free-radical oxidation damage the main components of cells (proteins, DNA, lipids) in the pathogenesis hepatopathy. (15, 16, 17, 18)

Pathogenic factors provoke the peroxidation lipids. Peroxidation products damage the membrane of hepatocytes, cellular organelles, the nuclear membrane. Increased permeability of the membrane breaks function of subcellular structures. Exempt lysosomal enzymes, adding damage cell membranes. Proteins cells acquire antigenic properties, stimulate the formation of autoantibodies (anti-nuclear, antimitochondrial, specific to the liver lipoprotein autoantibodies) and sensitization of lymphocytes. Autoantibodies are fixed on the membrane of hepatocytes, provoking impact sensitized lymphocytes to hepatocytes. Autoimmune reaction takes place on the principle of delayed-type hypersensitivity. . (19) The degree of parenchyma of the liver depends on the nature of the damaging factors, the duration impact of individual sensitivity of the organism. (20).

Because the liver is the central body metabolism in the body, the defeat of its tissue leads to a violation of the protein, carbohydrate, fat metabolism, the exchange of vitamins and hormones, reducing the barrier ability.

Clinical manifestations hepatopathy

can be extremely varied - anorexia, emaciation, polydipsia, obesity, skin diseases (eczema, pyoderma, alopecia), vomiting bile, ascites, jaundice, diarrhea, coagulopathy, gynecomastia in males and etc.

Diagnostics

Based on data from medical history, general clinical examination, laboratory tests of urine and blood, radiographic, ultrosonograficheskogo and sintigraficheskogo research. Informative histological examination of liver biopsy. However, in routine veterinary Practice a full set of studies is difficult for several reasons. In our clinic, most often to diagnose "hepatopathy" is used ultrasonographic examination of the liver, blood and laboratory tests urine.

Treatment

For the treatment of liver disease offered various drugs. Thus, to suppress inflammation and self-stabilization cell membranes are used glucocorticoids (20, 21), may cause a of dogs vacuolar hepatopathy (21,22). Proposed therapy drugs, contain vegetable flavonoids - Silibor, silymarin (23, 21, 24)

Despite the breadth of distribution geptopaty and, it would seem, the presence of a large number of drugs used in Hepatitis medical practice, the selection of effective treatment for dogs drugs difficult.

For etiotropic treatment of viral and bacterial hepatopathy using different adjuvants, antibiotics. Selection the latter requires a careful weighing of the pros and cons of the possibility development of liver failure. When necessary, correction electrolyte, carbohydrate balance.

Azathioprine, methotrexate, D-penicillamine, used in As protivofibroznyh, immunosupressonyh and immunomodulatory agents have serious side effects such as depression gomeopoeza, development pankreopaty, gastroenteritis, neurological disorders. Recommendation of sirepara (22) - hydrolyzate of liver, diskutabelna in connection with the data on suppression of mitotic activity of regenerating liver tissue hydrolysates liver (24).

Little information obtained experimentally by dosage effect on the regeneration of liver tissue in dogs drugs Essenciale, Liv-52, flavonoids thistle (silibinin, silymarin). In some cases, with intravenous injection Essenciale from several animals Us allergic reactions (angioedema, urticaria). Peroral intake capsules Essentiale forte is difficult because of the impossibility of dispensing drugs because of the great variability of body weight of dogs of different breeds.

in the medical literature describes the successful experience treatment of patients with liver disease homeopathic preparations. Aim of our research - to identify changes in the treatment of hepatopathy non-infectious origin dogs homeopathic preparations. Research conducted at the clinic "Asvet" g.Odintsovo Moscow region. The experiment involved 25 dogs various breeds aged from 1.5 to 12 years. Treatment is performed taking into account clinical picture, the data of biochemical analysis of blood, ultrosonograficheskogo examination of the liver. I admitted for treatment of animals observed changes in biochemical blood picture: increasing content of general bilirubin, urea, ALT, LDH, alkaline phosphatase, slight decrease albumin. When ultrosonograficheskom study noted a change in size liver, vascular pattern, granularity, and echogenicity body parenchyma of the gall bladder.

used for the treatment of complex drugs firms ?Heel? - Hepel, Kardus compositum, Coenzyme compositum, Gepar compositum, Ubiquinone compositum, Mucosit compositum, Helidonium Homaccord. Depending asymptomatic patients was selected combination of these drugs. Hepel (tablets) or Kardus compositum (injectable solution) are assigned to all animals, depending on the ease of application for the owner. Length of treatment averaged 1.5 months. The frequency of injections varied from two injections per day to one week depending on the severity of the disease. Drug Hepel animals received one to three tablets a day. In therapy used as therapeutic diet Pedigree Canine Hepatic Support (for 12 patients).

As a result of complex treatment was found that the clinical status of all animals treated homeopathic medicines, has improved. Biochemical parameters of blood closer to the norm. In the treatment of acute conditions ultrosonograficheskie indicators of liver function normalized. In the case of therapy chronic conditions, these figures have changed less pronounced. Application therapeutic diets allowed to normalize the clinical status (improved appetite, normalization of the gastrointestinal tract, recovery wool cover) patients in a shorter time compared with the rest animals.

It should be noted that prior to the homeopathic therapy three animals was a course of treatment allopathic drugs (Essenciale-forte, legalon, prednisolone, Liv-52 and others), which gave positive results.

effectiveness of homeopathic treatment is due detoxification, regeneration of hepatocytes, the protection of membranes hepatocytes from endogenous and exogenous toxins, analgesia and spasmolytic effect on the smooth muscle of the gall bladder, and choleretic effect. It is known that homeopathic remedies have virtually no side effects and contraindications, there is no danger of overdose and toxic effect the liver.

To explain the impact blagopriyatinogo homeopathic medicines should be considered a brief description of individual components of drugs. Components Carduus marianus (based flavonoid silibinina) and Licopodium used in diseases hepatobiliary system, stagnation of the portal vein, skin diseases. Licopodium in homeopathy is considered a means for patients with impaired protein metabolism, accompanied by the accumulation of uric acid salts and cholesterol (25). Carduus marianus has a stabilizing, antioxidant effect on membrane phospholipids. Helidonium acts antispasmodic, perhaps, the similarity in chemical structure alkaloid chelidonine with cholesterol affect cholesterol metabolism. Phosphorus applied in inflammatory lesions of the digestive system, the state depletion, necrosis and fatty liver with jaundice and cholaemia; regulates phosphorylation processes in the body. Hepar suis stimuliret detoxication function of the liver, is effective for chronic skin diseases. Acidum fumaricum, Acidum DL-malicum, Natrium oxalaceticum, Cystein, Acidum citricum, potency vitamins are involved in the regulation of the Krebs cycle and redox processes, promotes the stabilization and Restoration of cell membranes of hepatocytes. Mucosit compositum imposed patients with symptoms of cholecystitis, lesions of the gastrointestinal tract for restoration of mucous membranes and removal dysbacteriosis. (26)

Based on the above material can be conclusions: 1. Therapy hepatopathy allopathic drugs is problematic because their side effects, contraindications, lack of information dosage of drugs and duration of treatment.

2. The results obtained during experimental treatment showed promise treatment hepatopathy in animals with homeopathic medicines and the need for further research.

References

1. Susan W. Shaw, P. Irwin. Consequences of defeat cat and dog ticks. Waltham Focus, Volume 11 N 3, 2001, pp. 21.

1. Evplov NN Workshop on the diagnosis of invasive animal diseases. M. "Kolos", 1994, p.150

2. Chizhov, VA, Danilov EP, Doukour


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