category: Sociology

social institutions: nature, structure, function.

Sociology and social philosophy pays great attention to the study of social institutions society. In sociology, there are many definitions of a social institution. One of the first gave a detailed presentation of the social institutions American sociologist and economist Thorstein Veblen (1857 - 1929). Although his book "Theory of the Leisure Class" appeared in 1899, many of its provisions are not obsolete yet. The notion

"Social institution" in the sociology prominently. Social Institute, is defined as a single component of the social structure society, integrating and coordinating many individual actions people, the ordering of social relations in some spheres of social life.

Under Institute also imply a relatively stable set symbols, beliefs, values, norms, roles and statuses, which manages specific sphere of social life: family, religion, education, economy, management.

If summarize all the many different approaches to understanding the social scientists Institute, they can be divided into the following. Social Institute is a:

-- role-playing system, which includes the norms and statuses;

-- collection of customs, traditions and rules of conduct;

-- Formal and informal organizations;

-- set of norms and institutions that govern a certain sphere of public relations;

-- isolated complex of social action.

Understanding social institutions as a set of rules and mechanisms governing a sphere of social relations (family, production, state education, religion), social scientists have deepened the understanding of them as the base elements upon which the society.

Adjusting to the environment, society in the course of history develops tools suitable for address multiple objectives and meet critical needs. These Tools and called social institutions. Typical for this company institutions reflect the cultural character of this society. Institutions of different societies differ from each other. For example, the institution of marriage among different peoples has peculiar rites and ceremonies, based on accepted norms in each society and rules of conduct. In some countries the institution of marriage is allowed, for example, polygamy, which in other countries is strictly prohibited in accordance with their institution of marriage.

Inside set of social institutions can identify a subgroup of cultural institutions as a kind of private social institutions. For example, when we say that press, radio and television are a "fourth estate", essentially understand them as a cultural institution. Communication institutes are those The organs through which the society through social structures and produces disseminates information expressed in symbols. They are mostly source of knowledge about the experience. Subspecies of communication institutions are libraries, museums, schools and universities, television, newspapers, printing press, radio, cinema. Collection of all technical devices, including buildings, staff and funds to libraries, museums and schools, the infrastructure is institutional system of culture.

Social institutions help to solve the vital problems of large numbers of people. For example, millions of people, having fallen in love, have looked to the institution of marriage and family, and ill - in the institutions of health, etc. The legal order in Society provides institutions such as the state government, courts, Police, lawyers, etc.

Institutes both advocate and instruments of social control, because by its normative nature of forcing people to obey the accepted norms and comply with the relevant discipline. Therefore, the institute is understood as set of norms and patterns of behavior. Since

overseas, and after them, and domestic social scientists have different definitions of a social institution, they have different understandings of its internal structure, ie, functionally interconnected system of support elements. Despite the diversity of viewpoints, they are all essentially true, because represent different visions of the same. According to S. Frolov correct to speak not about the elements within the structure of the institute, and on institutional characteristics, ie, common to all institutions and features properties. Have nothing to Five:

1. Plants and patterns of behavior (affection, loyalty, responsibility and respect in the family, obedience, loyalty and subordination to the State);

2. Symbolic cultural attributes (wedding ring, flag, coat of arms, cross, icons etc.);

3. Unitary cultural traits (family house, public buildings for the state shops and factories for the production, classrooms and libraries for education, temples for religion);

4. Oral and written codes (prohibitions, legal safeguards, laws, rules);

5. Ideology (romantic love in the family, democracy in the country, freedom trade in the economy, academic freedom in education, Orthodoxy and Catholicism in religion).

typology of social institutions

All social institutions are usually divided into major and non-substantive. Second hiding inside the first, representing a smaller education. Apart division on the main institutions and non-substantive, they are classified and otherwise criteria. For example, institutions differ in their time of interaction and duration of existence (permanent and short institutions), rigidity of sanctions for violation of rules, conditions existence, the presence or absence of formal rules and procedures.

R. Mills counted in modern society, five institutional approaches, meaning the main institutions:

1. Economic - an institution that organizes economic activity;

2. Political - the institution authorities;

3. Family - the institution that regulates sexual relations, birth and socialization children;

4. The military - an institution that organizes legal heritage;

5. Religious - an institution that organizes the collective worship of the gods. Most

Sociologists agree with Mills that the major institutions in the human Society only five. Their purpose - to meet the essential life needs of the collective or society as a whole.

Five basic needs and institutions:

1. The need for the reproduction of the genus (the institution of marriage and family);

2. The need for security and social order (political institutions, State);

3. The need for means of subsistence (economic institutions, production);

4. The need to obtain knowledge in the socialization of the younger generation, training (institutions of education in the broad sense, ie including science and culture);

5. Need solutions spiritual problems, the meaning of life (Institute of Religion).

Institutes arose in ancient times. Sociologists define the production of at least 2 million years, if the starting point to consider first the tool created individual, family, anthropologists assign the second place, and believe that the lower boundary runs in a mark of 500 thousand years. Since then, the family was constantly evolving Taking many forms and guises: polygamy, polyandry, monogamy, cohabitation, nuclear, extended, single-parent family, etc. The State There are about as much and education, namely, 5-6 thousand years. Religion in its primitive forms (fetishism, totemism, animism) appeared approximately 30-40 thousand years ago, although some archaeologists, given the age of ancient graffiti (15 thousand years) and miniature sculptures, map the emergence of the cult of Mother Earth (25 thousand years), consider her age somewhat lower. How

already mentioned, within the main institutions are non-substantive, which also referred to as social practices or customs. Each main Institute has its own system-established practices, methods, procedures. For example, economic institutions can not do without such mechanisms as currency exchange, protection of private property, professional selection, placement and evaluation of employees, marketing, market, etc. Also inside institution of family and marriage, there are also institutions of motherhood and fatherhood, birth revenge, twinning, inheritance, social status of parents, etc. For example, custom to appoint a date is an element of social practices of courtship. In Unlike the main institution nonoperating Institute performs specialized the task of serving a particular custom or satisfying nefundamentalnuyu need.

functions and dysfunctions of social institutions

function social institution can be defined as a set of solvable problems, achievable objectives, the services provided.

First and most important function of social institutions is to meet the critical vital needs of society, ie, that without which no society can exist as such. It can not exist unless it is constantly replenished by new generations of people acquire the means of living, to live in peace and order, to produce new knowledge and transmit it to future generations, to address spiritual issues.

not Equally important is the function of socialization of people, carried out almost all social institutions (the assimilation of cultural norms and social development roles). It can be called universal.

Along with the universal, there are specific functions, ie, functions such are inherent in one and not inherent to other institutions, such as reproduction new generations (the institution of family), extraction of livelihood (production), maintaining order in society (state) discovery and transfer of new knowledge (science and education), the administration of rituals (religion).

If Institute brings benefits to society rather than harm, then such an action is called dysfunction. For example, the function of the Institute of Education - to prepare a comprehensive developed expertise. But if he is not doing its job, if education delivered badly, then the necessary specialists Society receives. Schools and universities graduate in the life of dilettantes. Function becomes, Thus, in dysfunction.

Activities social institution is considered to be functional if it promotes maintain stability and public interest. It can be regarded as dysfunctional, if not running on its preservation, and to destruction. Increase of dysfunctions in the social institutions can lead to social disruption of society.

K example, by the end of the 60-ies of the USSR trained professionals with higher education in per capita than any country in the world. The level of training and system Education may have been the highest on the planet. In the state of the U.S. debated question of the challenge to the world of the Soviet system of education. The Americans quickly developed a system of practical activities in order to catch up and surpassing in this regard the Soviet Union. Years passed. And today our schoolchildren and students - some of the most educated. But in general, the Soviet and then education system in the period from 70 to 90-s developed too slowly. A serious gap between the theoretical training of students and practical skills of young professionals. In enterprises with advanced technology university knowledge is not enough, and where labored on an obsolete equipment, knowledge was too much.

In late 80-ies, with the beginning of the restructuring of 's society has turned to market economy. It turned out that the Marxist social science is not can provide young people with necessary knowledge in the field of market economics, management, modern sociology, psychology and philosophy. We had to urgently restructure the curriculum, capitalize on the knowledge of technology learning. The economy received less hundreds of thousands of necessary expertise with modern knowledge. This resulted in a colossal damage economic field. To him we must add the expense of social and moral. For a generation brought up on old traditions, occupies a key position in society, therefore, directs the country is not always so, as required by the new realities. Damage from the same irregular foreign and domestic policy, ill governmental decision-making in general is incalculable.

Options and dysfunction are obvious, it is officially stated, all conscious and obvious to all, and latent, that is hidden, not stated. Explicit functions of institutions are necessary. They are formed and declared in codes and incorporated in the system of statuses and roles. Latent functions are expressed in the unexpected results of the institutions or persons representing their. Thus, a democratic state that was established in in the early 90's years, through Parliament, the government and the president sought to improve the lives people, to create a civilized society relations and inspire citizens respect for the law. These were clear goals and objectives. In fact, in the country increased levels of crime, and living standards fell. These results latent functions of institutions of power. Explicit functions indicate what wanted to reach people within a particular institution, and the latent - that what came of it.

dynamics of social institutions

Under the dynamics of social institutions to understand the three interrelated processes:

1. Life Cycle Institute from inception to its disappearance;

2. The functioning of a mature institution, ie, the execution of explicit and latent functions, emergence and continued dysfunction;

3. Evolution of the Institute - to change the type, form and content in historical time, the emergence of new and withering away of the old functions.

In Life Cycle Institute, a social organization distinguish several stages, which are qualitatively different from each other:

1. The origin of the organization.

2. The period of performance, when the institution reaches its full maturity.

3. Period formalization (rules cease to be a means of regulating activities, and become an end in itself).

4. Period of disorganization, when the former Institute of flexibility and vitality. After this institution is liquidated or reorganized in the new.

addition the life cycle of the institute and its historical evolution, the concept of "dynamic institutions "should include the interaction of institutions, taking the most different forms, including the two main - cooperation and competition. If Institute are successfully coping with its function, economy thriving, incomes grow, then the state budget more than before receiving funds for the development of other institutions: education, science, culture, social assistance, and etc. Since

education, culture and science are the most prestigious and simultaneously the most poor institutions of society, the representatives of other institutions struggle with for the right to dictate its will. Politicians, foundations, charitable organizations, parties act as sponsors, and industrial corporations pick up a staff almost from school, advertising and organizing vocational orientation of pupils and students. Eventually Institute of Education becomes an arena of competition between other institutions society.

Institutional competition can exist within the same sphere of society, between sister institutions. For example, in a culture is often a relentless struggle. The Institute selects the television audience at least three institutions of culture - Cinema, theater and reading. Television, film studio and the theater are kind of social organization, and reading - social practices. At first have their own government, finance articles, departments and universities, newspapers and magazines, and reading - is a collective habit of educated people to receive information, sharing events and analyzing information. Although they are all different, between them may exist relations not only complementary, but mutual competition.

So summarize all the above and say that the Socialny institute is brought before we have a gigantic social system that existed historically for a long time, satisfying the fundamental needs of society, which has strong power and moral authority, covering a large set of phenomena expressed with the help of statuses and roles, social norms and sanctions, social organizations (businesses, universities, companies, agencies, etc.) which, in its turn, have the staff, administration, special admission procedures, consolidation and layoffs, many mechanisms of social control, etc. Social Institute - is an adaptive system of society, created for meet their critical needs and governed by a set of social standards.

Development social institutions is carried out by the emergence of new social institutions and by improving the existing institutions. This means that the system of social institutions that exist.

References

For preparation of this work were used materials from the site filreferats


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