category: Physiotherapy

STATE ACADEMY FIZKULTURA them. PF LEZGAFTA DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY OF PHYSICAL CULTURE PHYSICAL HISTORY

CULTURE OF CHINA GERINA OLGA SPORTS AEROBICS

IV group, I rate

PETERSBURG

1999

Why I chose this topic? To begin with, that speaking about the history of physical culture, the first thing that comes to mind - A great Chinese culture with the formation of various schools and monasteries. Creation of the Chinese people of this cultural heritage. And most importantly, despite the various disasters, world wars, as well as "cultural revolution" interest in physical culture, namely, the martial arts only increases. Ability to maintain public property and transfer it from generation to generation - is a great achievement and the benefit of the Chinese people. I also want to note that not in any way detract from such a worthy monument to the physical culture of other nations, namely the ancient Greeks, Hindus, Japanese, Romans, etc., but still want to develop the theme of the East (China), because in my life, and more precisely in the life of my family becomes more passion and warfare wellness arts. Since the "IFC and the study of sport and development tools, forms, methods, theories, and the system of physical education at different stages of the existence of society "- believe that my chosen theme is quite appropriate.

Due to the fact that in China there is "rampant" passion for martial arts and wellness directions, the important role education plays in physical education. From an early age, Chinese kids happy to come to class. Already in 5-6 years participated in competitions, participate in various entertainment activities associated with the traditions of the Chinese people. Educating kids with Childhood instills a reverent attitude to their culture, their ancestors, roots. But most importantly, that with this they get a good physical development, knowledge of the philosophy of life and even "control" over their health. For such species as Tai Chi and Qigong is nothing, as an integral recovery. I note that the elderly are also involved in wellness species and sometimes even martial arts.

rudiments of the Chinese Wushu appeared before statehood, but to IV-III century. BC there was no system (schools) wushu was only training soldiers, "the military profession." Initially, it was kind of dancing-military exercises, and later acquired the status of paramilitary discipline in special schools.

By the end of III century BC. e. All individual training of soldiers has been merged under called "yu". This term lasted for many centuries, and later became a synonym to wushu in the wee entered tszyuedi (wrestling), shoubo (melee battle), the connection to a weapon. Education was based on the complexes of formal exercises - ta-Ola - who carried out both individually and with partners. Complexes mock fight with their bare hands, fight with weapons, protection from armed attack.

In periods of "Spring and Autumn" (770-476 gg. BC. e.) and the Warring States (475-221 gg. BC. e.) lived and worked in major Chinese philosophers: Confucius, Lao Tzu, Mencius, Chuang-tzu. China was referred to their spiritual impulse that has influenced the development of the whole East Asia in the next couple of millennia. In the I century AD China from India, Buddhism began to penetrate. All philosophical systems are trained to watch for general dissimilar things everyday. Since martial arts were engaged not only ordinary soldiers (to speak in duels on the platform not shunned even by some emperors), the Chinese martial arts gradually began to merge with philosophical systems, growing level of a simple set of methods of warfare. Perhaps it is because of this they are not lost in the centuries and have evolved and survived to the present day.

Approximately in VI century in China came to an Indian missionary, Bodhidharma, who became to preach Buddhism in the Shaolin Monastery near Loyana. According to legend, he founded the famous Shaolin style of wushu. By tradition subsequently Shaolin monks have helped restore the throne of the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty - Li Shih-min - and he allowed the monastery monastic contain troops. Now a special term - usen (monk-warrior).

In Sung period (960-1279) many monks, including usenov, went out into the world, and pondered them in a monastic commitment. In the XII century. Shaolin Wushu went into decline because of the numerous persecutions of Buddhism and the Mongol invasion. But in 1224 in Shaolin Monastery, a young man who took the monastic name Jueyuan. Seeing the deplorable state of wushu in the monastery, he decided that the true tradition is lost martial arts, and became, to revive it. He, in fact, created a new style survivor.

After 1219, when after the conquest of China, Genghis Khan went to war in the west, China began to resettle the Persians and Arabs, followers of Islam. Such people were called "Sam" ( "tsvetnoglazye"), they had fewer rights than the Mongols, but more than the Chinese. Official documents Yuan dynasty, they were termed "hueyhuey. Who came to the east, Muslim infantry and artillery in 1275, in accordance with the decree of the founder Yuan Dynasty "everywhere to join the residents of the borderland communities" of the soldiers were peasants. Of these people, and arrived in the Tang and Song dynasties in the Arab Sea immigrants and converts to Islam formed the Chinese nation Hui (Muslim). During more than seven hundred years of its existence, the nation Hui was inextricably linked with wushu, which they viewed as a means of self-defense. Classes Wushu considered a sacred ritual, which has stimulated the spirit Muslims.

In 1351-1368 years the popular uprising "red bandages", headed by Zhu Yuanchzhana (who was himself a great lover of wushu) ended the Mongolian Dynasty Yuan and led to the throne of the Celestial Empire Ming Dynasty, the first Emperor Hongwu Emperor, and which has. Start "golden age" Wushu

In the XVI century. coastal provinces of China have suffered devastating raids of the Japanese pirates. "Punish the bandits and oberech people" were ordered talented official Qi Tsziguanu (which by this time was 27 years old). He got in difficult situation: the troops in those places were too small and perfectly prepared Japanese samurais easily dealt with poorly organized troops who were trying to give them resistance. Therefore Qi Tsziguan, being an expert in Wushu, decided to bring in the detachments of the local militia fighters wushu and craftsmen. In 1561 the Japanese in the provinces of Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong were defeated. Having obtained the post of general, Qi Tsziguan ordered all his soldiers, and even higher officer's staff to engage in wushu. Bringing together many of the then system of military training, he wrote his famous treatise "Tszisyao Xinsheng" ( "New Book records of achievements [in war] "). Through the activities of Qi Tsziguana XVI century is considered a watershed in the history of Wushu

Ming Dynasty was the era of stable, methodical improvement and peace coexistence of different schools. But nothing lasts forever.

June 6, 1644 Beijing was captured by the Manchu troops. Ming emperor hanged himself to not to fall alive into the hands of the conquerors. Installed a new dynasty - Qing Dynasty - which, despite a truly epic scale of the national liberation struggle in China, has managed to retain power until 1911. Center practice wushu became a secret society.

Throughout the XIX century Celestial shaken popular uprisings against the Manchu rule and the domination of foreigners. Secret societies, cultivated different styles of wushu, took the brunt and the Rebellion of the Eight Trigrams, and in the Opium Wars and the great folk Taiping War. The apotheosis of the secret societies was the Boxer Rising (1899-1901), which became part of world history under the name "Boxer?.

Despite the fact that the defeat of the Boxers led to the death of many wushu masters, entrenched tradition of martial arts could not, of course, disappear without a trace. During the Xinhai Revolution (1911 - 1913) and later during the reign warlords, the activities of secret societies resumed with new vigor.

The ROC government has provided greater support to the development of wushu. First China's president of Sun Zhongshan (Sun Yat-sen), he studied Tai Chi under the guidance Tsai Guytsinya. His successor - Generalissimo Chiang (Chiang Kai-Shek) - was also no stranger to fighting of Arts. He personally attended the GOK ( "state tests" - a sort of all-China wushu competitions), which meets in Nanking (the then capital of China) Central Institute of Gosha ( "national art" - so in the reign of the Kuomintang called wushu), based in 1928 the Rector of the Institute was General Zhang Chzhitszyan, patronized him Defense Minister Feng Yuxiang. Another major organizations that are developing wushu was founded in 1909 in Shanghai Jin Association ( "Association of the true martial arts"). Both organizations have branches in all provinces of China (Association of Jin - and abroad, in places of compact residence of the Chinese: Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, etc.), taught there as masters, keepers of the true tradition. During the Second World War, many wushu masters fought in the army or partisan groups, contributing to the cause victory over Japan.

After coming to power of the Communist Party and the founding of the PRC Government has asked the Wushu master called out of hiding, claiming that all the motives for clandestine activities were in the past (the power of the Manchus overthrown, the Japanese expelled, the country united under a single authority). The Government believed, and in 1953 in Tianjin, from 8 to 12 November the First National All-China sports day, 75% of which took statements wushu. It has been shown 139 styles of wushu, held fights in close combat (without any protective equipment), the battle on the short arms (sword) and the battle on the long arms (poles and spears), as well as competitions on such an ancient type of national competitions, as weight lifting. Seeing such a power (in the fights were practically no trauma), the Government took fright - you never know where to turn this force in future. Most secret societies have been dissolved.

parallel from multiple Wushu masters and historians who have agreed to cooperate with the State (as sincerely believed that Wushu in need of reform), formed a commission on the reform of wushu. Well-known artist Cai Lunyun on the basis of its a family style huaquan (burgeoning fist), and several other northern styles - chzhatsyuan (fist family Kyaw), paotsyuan (cannon fist), huntsyuan (fist flow), piguatsyuan (fist cut and hanging), shaolinquan (Fist Shaolin Monastery) - created a new synthetic racing style chantsyuan (long fist). On the basis of the five styles of the province of Kuang-tung (styles of families Hung, Tsai, Lee, Liu and Mo) was created synthetic sports style nantsyuan (southern fist). Description of methods were replaced on the technical, thus depriving them of spiritual fullness (agree, "blow, splitting the mountain" - is one thing; "Cotton fist on the palm of your hand" - something quite different). During the "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" (1966-1976) studying Wushu undergone massive reprisals for having "indulged feudal remnants." However, at this time due kinoboevikam started growing popularity of wushu abroad, and in order not to spoil the international image of China, Wushu left alone.

Now, the state is still pursuing a policy of turning to the sport of wushu. Among Youth who have not seen a true Wushu, promoted the Chiang Kai-Quan and Nan-chuan, as well as sports and recreational version of the ancient styles. Established rules of fights (the fight by the rules - a thing in the traditional wushu just unthinkable). As they say folk artists, "to win matches on sanshou rules, you need to do boxing and wushu is not. Traditional Wushu continues to exist, but without interfering with the public.

All-China Wushu Academy in Beijing. In essence, it is one of the faculties of the local institution physical training, but enjoys a certain autonomy and is working on a special program to do this kind of world, to win universal acceptance. Meanwhile in Academy of Sciences of the course are hundreds of young people, childhood is sufficient to study his techniques and methods whose origins are lost in the depths of prehistory.

Even a very superficial acquaintance suggests that we are dealing not just with the sport, but the whole culture of physical education, have passed all tests and save yourself for the modern man. We in fact know only one of the varieties of Wushu - Purely military designed for active self-defense. That it attracts many of our young people eager to get their hands on, so said arms without weapons. But for the Chinese Wushu something immeasurably greater and they are ready with the whole world to share their knowledge.

The Academy wushu learns a lot of students from Europe and America. Girls who master the techniques of wushu, surprisingly plastic. The sport is suitable for people of all ages and sexes.

addition wushu, the Chinese students, as well as in our academy behalf


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