category: Philosophy

Anthropological materialism of Feuerbach

In the middle of XIX century with a sharp criticism of idealism made by the German philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach. With Feuerbach's standpoint, the idealism is no more than a streamlined religion, philosophy and religion at their very essence, thought Feuerbach, opposed to each other. The basis of religion is the belief in the dogmas, whereas in Its philosophy - knowledge, the desire to reveal the true nature of things. Therefore

primary task of philosophy, Feuerbach saw the criticism of religion, to expose those illusions that constitute the essence of religious consciousness. Religion and close to there in spirit idealist philosophy arise, according to Feuerbach, from alienation of human essence, by ascribing to God those attributes, which actually belong to man himself. According

Feuerbach, for exemption from religious delusions need to understand that man - not a creature of God, and some - and, moreover, the most perfect - the eternal Nature. He wrote: "My doctrine or opinions can therefore be expressed in two words: nature and man. From my point of view, being pre - man, a creature that cause or basis for the person to whom he owes its origin and existence, and there is no God - mystical vague mnogoznachaschie word, and nature - the word, and there is a clear, sensual, unequivocal. Essentially, in which nature is personal, conscious, rational being, has called me - a man. F. Engels wrote about the composition Feuerbach Essence of Christianity ":" Nature is always exists independently of whatever it was philosophy. It is the foundation on which we grew up, people, themselves the products of nature. Outside of nature and man are no nothing, and the higher beings, created by our religious imagination, it is - only fantastic reflection of our own essence. "

Materialism Feuerbach significantly different from the materialism of the XVIII century, because, Unlike the latter, does not reduce all reality to the mechanical movement and that nature is not a mechanism, but rather as an organism. He characterized as an anthropological, as well as the focus of Feuerbach - not abstract concept of matter, as the majority of the French materialists, and man as a psychophysical unity, unity of body and soul. Based on this understanding of man, Feuerbach rejects his idealistic interpretation, with which man is regarded primarily as a spiritual being. According Feuerbach, the body in its entirety exactly constitutes the essence of human "I". The spiritual principle in man can not be separated from the body, mind and body - Two sides of the reality, which is called the body. Human nature, therefore, interpreted Feuerbach predominantly biologically, and single individual for him - not historically spiritual education, as in Hegel, a link in the development of the human race.

Criticizing idealistic interpretation of knowledge and being satisfied with abstract thinking, Feuerbach appeals to sensuous contemplation. Assuming that makes sense the only source of our knowledge. Only what is given to us through the bodies senses - sight, hearing, touch, smell, - has, according to Feuerbach, the true reality. With the help of the senses we perceive as physical objects, and mental states of others. Feuerbach did not recognize any suprasensuous reality and rejected the possibility of a purely abstract knowledge with the help of reason, considering recent invention of idealistic speculation.

Anthropological principle of Feuerbach in the theory of knowledge expressed in the fact that he is a new interprets the concept "object". For Feuerbach, the concept of object originally formed in the experience of human communication, and therefore the first object to any man - is a different man, "You." It is love for another man is the way to the recognition of its objective existence, and thus to recognition of the existence of all external things.

from internal connections between people, based on the feeling of love, there is altruistic morality, which, in the opinion of Feuerbach, should take the place of an illusory connection with God. Love of God, according to the German philosopher, is only alienated, false form of true love - love for others.

Anthropological principle of Feuerbach.

final presented great classical German philosophy was Feuerbach (1804 - 1872). Condemning the idealistic interpretation of thinking as vneprirodnoy and superhuman nature, Feuerbach concludes that the question of the relation being to thinking is the question of human essence, because only a man thinks.

Other phyla., because it is the question of relations Dec way of thinking and being, should be anthropology, etc. ie the doctrine of the person, in existence, in which this question Worker finds actual, the real solution. Dude

inseparable from nature; thinking is a necessary expression of the inherent biology and physiology. activities. F. Anthropology F decrees on his desire to develop a mater syst views. The essential content and appointed. anthropologist. principle is to F. scientific interpretation of social consciousness, he sees a cat in a reflection the essence of people. This essence of F above all sensual life of the mind and heart, diversity of the individual survived. These are signs that seen decomp commonly forms of consciousness (and religion) in terms of bookmark. in her life content.

basis anthropological F is the nature of math teaching. SMPs yavl only reality, and cel its highest product. In person and through him prir feels, contemplates myself thinking about myself. Nature is eternal. Emergence and destruction are toko to individual events. SMPs is infinite in space. FA defends position on inseparable connection of matter and motion. However, does not indicate a qualitative variety of forms moving. matter, their mutual transitions. The feasibility of alive and rast world is not a p-t realization of intrinsic yavl purpose, consequence of the unity of the world mate. TV on he does not deny the appropriateness of an object is alive nature, he points to the rights of its relativity.

T. on the fax. teaching about nature in general does not go beyond metaf materialism. F recognizes the important knowing the function teoret thinking and its ability to achieve deeper knowledge of reality. The task of thinking - to collect, compare, distinguish, classify sensory data, to recognize, understand, discover their hidden, are not directly content. Thinking is mediated Har-ter, so what we think, is not always the object directly yavl perception.

Atheism Feuerbach

(I deny god, for me it means: I deny the negation of man).

Feuerbach examines the history of modern philosophy from the perspective of the struggle of a number of trends: empiricism with rationalism, realism and romanticism, and in some cases of materialism and idealism. ^ However, the central tendency he saw was shown above, in the struggle between reason and faith, science and religion, philosophy and theology. This struggle shows Feuerbach, permeated the whole philosophy of the new time - Bacon and Hobbes, Gassendi and Descartes, Leibniz, and Bay-la, Descartes and Spinoza.

Feuerbach Notes the desire of each of these thinkers to free the human mind from religious influence, and their undoubted contribution to this cause. But none of them, he opinion, is not completely freed from the duality of faith and reason. Philosophers latest then accepted the faith, but as the wife is recognized as authorized person of the husband when he sold it internally. Feuerbach required consistency and uncompromising in the matter. Tearing god its mysteriousness, Feuerbach is initially believed that the human thinking, as such, has an independent existence. Influenced Hegel's principle of identity of subject and object, thought and being, he place transcendental God put supersensible mind thinking.

It underline that for Feuerbach's atheism is not a simple denial of God. This point of view he considered characteristic of the XVII and XVIII centuries. "Who me not says and does not know anything more, except that I - an atheist, he is a says nothing and nothing about me do not know. The question of whether there is a god or not, as the dividing line between theism and atheism is worthy of the seventeenth and eighteenth, but not the nineteenth century. I deny god, for me it means: I deny the negation of rights, I say sensual, true, therefore, inevitably also political, social man's place instead illusory, fantastic, heavenly residence rights, which in real life inevitably turns into a denial of rights. For me the question about the existence or non-existence of God is only a question about the existence or non-existence of man. "

Thus Feuerbach not satisfy the negative atheism of his predecessors. Atheism Feuerbach requires positive approval rights in contrast to religion, bogus claims. Adoption rights should not be only real, but also comprehensive, covering all spheres of his life. Feuerbach realized that count for much concern "about the clarity and health of the head and heart, "if" your stomach is not right "and" basis of human existence damaged. According to Feuerbach, in order to cure the "illness of the head and heart" to which he attributed, and religious ideology, is necessary to solve the problem "Stomach". With reference to the physiology and anthropology, he expressed valuable idea that the spiritual (and hence religious) the emancipation of man is part of the broader, including social and political, his emancipation. Referring this extremely important task, Feuerbach, however, aware that his work hardly enough to outline specific ways to address it. It therefore makes to a much more modest goal - "a thorough investigation and healing of head and heart diseases of mankind. " Thus Feuerbach limits its atheism narrow limits of enlightenment.

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