category: Geography

Options

cities

Options city - its role, purpose in society. In any city there are functions gradoobsluzhivayuschie (industries, serving the city's population) and of main town (industry and manufacturing, products and services which are for the city).

Township-forming functions are divided into central (diverse city environmental services territory) and special (specializing in any industry-wide whole or in large part).

Large city, as a rule, polyfunctional, ie, perform several functions (though among these functions is usually possible to identify the dominant). Small city often monofunctional.

Options Cities are one of the main criteria for a typology of cities. Criteria for typology of cities:

Genesis (when, how the people of the town was founded)

Options ( "Profession")

Place in the settlement system (the core of the metropolitan area, a satellite town, transit point, etc.)

Size (population)

Typology urban region (on Maksakovskomu):

Center Small metropolitan area - for example, Orekhovo-

City Science - Pushchino

Multisectoral city with a diverse industry - Pavlovsky Posad

Satellite Town - Zhukovsky

City - Local center, recreation center, industry, local -- Zvenigorod, Volokolamsk

single-function Center (industrial, scientific, transport Transport) - Drezna

Types cities of : the central location and specialized (branch) points. The central location - the capital (Moksva), centers of economic regions (Voronezh), Centers subjects (Maikop), inter-regional centers (Orsk), district centers (Kozelsk), intra-centers (Aprelevka). Specialty: Industrial Centers (Togliatti), transport (Novorossiysk), science (Pushchino), travel Centers (Suzdal), spa towns (Sochi).

Economic-geographical situation of cities

Review EGP - canvas features of the city. In the formation of its functional structure must see the implementation of some aspect of geography. Outlining directions of further development should be based on not yet used reserves EGP.

To submit a city in the whole complex system of relationships, so important to him development, often used by the proposed NN Baranski concept of macro-, meso-and mikropolozheniya (game scale, "according to the classic domestic economic geography IM Mayergoyza). The ability to combine the territorial levels of the city is very important.

Chief factor in the emergence of the city in a given place is transport-geographical position. This is an extremely important feature of EGP Urban confirmed, in particular, a large number of current major centers, arose from crossing the river ( "City Bridge"): Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk.

vital important for the cities of connectedness with the road network confirmed their role as gates to the path in the areas of: Rostov-on-Don, Vladikavkaz, Derbent. In many cities of the gates are well-known symbol (Vladimir, Kiev, Luebeck, Bombay).

Formation territorial structure of the economy and its transformation, the construction of new transport routes, development of new resources, the foundation of new cities -- All this can significantly affect the EGP city. Thus, EGP - Category largely historical (examples: Astrakhan, Pskov). Sometimes certain functions transferred to the city with more favorable EGP (examples: Brasilia, Astana). Already

mentioned ability of the Soviet geographer IM Mayergoyz has developed the following fundamental structure of the EGP City:

A. Major territorial relationships:

Attitude the elements of social production:

industrial and geographical - Provision for energy sources, the main types of bulky raw materials (wood, metal), manufacturing clusters;

agro-geographical - Provision for food bases, bases of agricultural raw materials;

transport and geographical - Position relative to sea routes, other main roads, transport nodes;

marketing and geographical - Position on the markets for capital goods (coal, ferrous metals), markets for consumer goods;

demo-geographic - Position relative to labor, scientific and technical personnel;

Attitude habitats to:

vnutriarealnoe (central, eccentric, peripheral) - position relative administrative areas, the integrated economic habitats, other habitats (coal basins, certain ranges of agricultural specialization, settlement particular nationality, etc.);

mezharealnoe - Position relative to the same object as vnutriarealnoe position.

B. Derivatives territorial relations - relations to the lines and focus:

on traffic - position relative to the intra-relations, inter - relations, foreign economic relations;

on passengers - mostly internal;

interposition - Position relative to its local system of cities (including suburban areas), its territorial system of cities, other cities territorial systems (especially capitals).

B. Integral territorial relations (relations of relations) - the ratio of Areas of various sizes (with the intensity of relations with them):

mikropolozhenie - Provision for one or more administrative regions, the planning district;

mezopolozhenie - Position on the major economic region;

macrolocation - Provision for the economic region or several economic areas;

megapolozhenie - Position relative to the group of economic regions, states, the continent.

Number population

Population world is 5.5 billion people.

10 largest population (more than 40 million people.) State-in the world

more 100 million people.

1 - China (1200)

2 - India (896)

3 - United States (258)

4 - Indonesia (189)

5 - Brazil (160)

6 - (148)

7 - Pakistan (130)

8 - Japan (125)

9 - Bangladesh (120)

10 - Nigeria (105) Former

USSR:

1 - (148)

2 - Ukraine (52)

3 - Uzbekistan (22)

4 - Kazakhstan (17)

5 - Belarus (10)

6 - Azerbaijan (7)

7 - Tajikistan (5.5)

8 - Georgia (5)

9 - Kyrgyzstan (4)

10 - Turkmenistan (4)

11 - Moldova (4)

12 - Lithuania (3.5)

13 - Armenia (3.5)

14 - Latvia (2.5)

15 - Estonia (1.5)

Features urbanization in

K early 1990's. had 170 cities with populations over 100 thousand people. In In 1897 there were only two city-millionaire: Moscow and St. Petersburg. In 1959 it added Nizhny Novgorod. Now in 12 cities-millionaires.

urban planning structure of (in the number of small honor to add urban village - the population of more than 3 thousand, not in agriculture employs more than 85%: ? ?? ?? Group

cities population size, ?? Thousands ?? ?? ??

number of cities this group ?? ?? ??

number of residents in this group ?? ? ? ?? ??

million people ?? ?? ??

% ?? ? ? ?? ??

Small - up to 50 ?? ?? ??

2780 ?? ?? ??

28,8 ?? ?? ??

26,5 ?? ? ? ?? ??

Medium - 50-100 ?? ?? ??

175 ?? ?? ??

12,0 ?? ?? ??

11,2 ?? ? ? ?? ??

Large - 100-500 ?? ?? ??

136 ?? ?? ??

29,3 ?? ?? ??

27,2 ?? ? ? ?? ??

Large - 500-1000 ?? ?? ??

20 ?? ?? ??

13,1 ?? ?? ??

12,2 ?? ? ? ?? ??

City-millionaires ?? ?? ??

12 ?? ?? ??

24,3 ?? ?? ??

22,6 ?? ? ? ?? ?? Total

?? ?? ??

3123 ?? ?? ??

107,5 ?? ?? ??

100,0 ?? ?

Features urbanization in recent years:

stopped replenish the ranks of large cities (more than 100 thousand), which has slowed down and previous decade.

slowed down and characteristic for the last time, the transition of large cities from one category population size in another, consistent way to the top: from lower to higher.

All This phenomenon occurred as a result of reduction, sometimes very significant, the rate of natural increase of urban population. Causes - general deterioration of the demographic situation in , the reduction fertility, the transition to a different type of reproduction.

Reduction flow of migrants to rural areas to urban areas. Further updating population of large cities at the expense of the countryside, more and more covered depopulation, entails a reduction in the network of settlements and the withering away of their part.

References

For preparation of this work were used materials from the site rocich/


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