Lemon Tree

Lemon tree.
Homeland lemon believe the East Indies and Indochina. The name "lemon" occurred, probably from the Malay word "LEMO", but in China it is called "limung" which means "good mothers". In the wild state lemon is unknown. Culture lemon is very old. Written sources first mentioned in the XII century. China has grown more over 2200 years BC. e. In Europe, imported by the Portuguese in the XV century. In Russia, Lemon got over a hundred years ago from Turkey in the village of Pavlovo (near Nizhny Novgorod). Since then, the villagers grow lemons in tubs at home. For many years, breeding a new variety of lemon Pavlovsky, which is perfectly adapted to the room conditions. One indoor lemon tree can produce with the right care in the year 10

Carnivorous Plants

Are there some carnivorous plants?
Plants predators - not so rare in the world, their more than a hundred species. In temperate areas are easy to meet Drosera rotundifolia and Aldrovandi bubble.
This is quite a small plant can be found in peat bogs. Its leaves are collected in the outlet, covered with reddish hairs-hunting tentacles red head upstairs. She identifies the sticky liquid and therefore the entire surface of the sheet as if covered with dew. In the center of leaf hairs short, on the edges - more than long. Flies, ants, attracted by the glitter droplets fall on the list and stick to it. Victim is torn, and struggling with the hurt neighboring hairs. They are attracted to insect and envelop him with his mucus. Edge of the sheet begins to slowly bend and covers it

The disease of cereal crops

NCLB wheat
Distribution and severity of illness
Recently, the disease is widespread in wheat.
Development of disease
On leaves formed yellow-brown, oval or spindle-shaped spots with dark-brown dot in the center. These spots have a yellow rim. As the infection spots coalesce with each other, which leads to the withering away and falling away sheet.
Pathogen and its biology
Pathogen NCLB wheat - Pyrenophora triticirepentis (= Helminthosporium triticirepentis = Drechslera triticirepentis) belongs to a class ASKO-mitsetov. The originator remains on the remains of straw and stubble and spring ascospores infect wheat plants. Prove the possibility of contamination of seed, but have not yet found its significance for the par

Spurs on botany. Algae

1. mikobionty mostly marsupials mushrooms, also part of basidiomycetes. for hyphae typical apical growth. hyphae, interwoven form plektenhimu (false cloth). There are also fat hyphae septate hyphae. seeking to cover, driving the hyphae fikobionty most green algae (genera Trebouxia, palmella, kladofora etc. razmn. autospores and division), also nw algae (Nostoc, Annabi, gleokapsa, hrookokkus, stigonema gormogonii and spores are formed), zheltozelenye algae - geterokokkus. reproduction: vegetative through parts of the thallus, as well as SOREDE (cl. algae, braided hyphas mushroom mod-Xia inside the thallus) and Isis (knobby growths, covered with bark, which contains both components) asexual mikobionta - in pycnidia formed piknokonidii the sexual process studied enough, similar p.prots. marsu

Spurs on botany.Mushrooms

28 General characteristics of fungi. Hallmarks. Evolution of the mycelium.
This sloevischnye bezplastidnye organisms which have characteristics of plants and animals and have a number of specific features:
Signs of plants:
-the presence of cell wall
-Unlimited growth in time and space.
?Power-absorbed (through absorption, phagocytosis and pinocytosis absent)
?Signs of plants:
-Lack chlorophyll (heterotrophic nutrition)
-There chitin in the wall
-In the cell there is glycogen (starch zhiv.,)

-Vegetative body of most fungi is a mycelium composed of branching filaments - hyphae, may rise above the substrate (surface and aerial mycelium). -There are non-cellular, or tsenotsitichesky myceli

Botanical livestock, answers to questions

Issues of control activity.

Question number 9
The Constitution of farm animals and its types. Exterior-constitutional features animals of different productive direction.

Question number 31
Features and feeding cows (dead, in the maternity ward, during milking, in the second half of lactation).

Question number 36
Initial processing of milk on the farm. Storage and transport.

Question number 54
Basic physical and technical properties of wool.

Question number 70
Technology of production of poultry meat.

Question number 9
The Constitution of farm animals and its types. Exterior-constitutional features animals of different productive direction




Question number 1.
Challenges in the crop. Solutions to these problems. Yields of major crops for the past two years on the farm and the region

Question number 6
Biological characteristics of winter rye, the system of tillage system and fertilizer, planting dates and rules. Causes of death of winter rye.

Question number 28.
Biology of spring wiki technology and its cultivation for seed.

Question number 55.
The concept of crop seed quality, the role of high-quality seeds to increase crop yield.

Question number 81
Intercropping - podsevnye, crop and wintering, their importance in the intensification of agriculture, methods of cultivation.

Question number 90

Storage and processing of agricultural products

Check job number 1

Subject: Storing, processing of agricultural

Question number 17
Technological properties of frosted grain and grain damaged chinch.
Observed in the northern and north-eastern Russia early frost, too, violate the normal formation of grain. In these cases, the grain-grain company goes seized at the root frost (frosted), have a low technological qualities and less stable during storage.
These grains have a higher respiration rate and are unstable during storage. This is especially noticeable in batches containing a lot of grains damaged by frost.
The table shows AP Prokhorova, showing, that the grain weight, even dry state, but contains grains damaged by frost, has increased respiration rate.

Statistics in agriculture

V V E D E N and E.
The term statistics derived from the Latin "status", which means "a certain state of affairs. He originally used in the meaning of the word "gosudarstvovedenie" was first coined in the 1749godu German scientist G. Ahenvalem, released the book on gosudarstvovedenii.
Currently, the term "statistics" is used in three meanings.
First, a special branch of statistics to understand practical activity aimed at collecting, processing and analysis of data on the socio - economic enterprises.
Secondly, the statistics is the science involved in the development of theoretical positions and methods used in statistical practice. Between statistical science and statistical practices are closely connected. Statistical practic

Project for the repair of irrigation systems

1.1. Introduction
Reclaimed land located in the watershed district. Tours in LLP SPH "Embaevskoe" Tyumen region, and provided in two parcels. The first site is located in 2,5 km. north-west s.Embaevo, second in the 1km. north sTuraevo.
Southern border areas is a road Tyumen - Tobolsk, north - the railroad. For the first section of the western boundary is Skotoprogonnaya and road n. Yar-giving, the second section of the western side is limited to expensive villas - sTuraevo.
In the present state sites are overgrown with small bushes reservoir.
Basis of a working draft inspection report is a condition orositelnoy system and job design SUE Tyumenvodhoz ", issued 16.07.97.
Coverage by researches was 202 hectares. The need to repair the irrigati

Reforming agriculture

Village reform requires an integrated approach involving the development of multiculturalism not only in manufacturing but also in the social sphere. Socio-economic structure of the social sphere of the village was mixed in the pre-reform period. It included state ownership (the major cultural facilities, motels, rest homes, power lines, communications, pipelines and other engineering structures, which are administered by the federal government, individual ministries and departments, infrastructure, consisting of the balance of the state farms), municipal (school, kindergartens, hospitals, dispensaries, shops and community services, culture and sports), co-operative (objects consisting of the balance of collective farms), cooperative (business trade, public catering, se

The cost of livestock products and ways of its reduction

1. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the cost of livestock production
1.1. Cost of agricultural production: concepts, types
1.2. Methodological basis for calculating the cost of livestock production
2. Economic characteristics enterprise
3. The cost of livestock production in the enterprise
3.1. Livestock enterprise
3.2. Analysis of production costs and the cost of livestock production
3.3. Characteristics of the factors determining the cost of livestock production
4. Ways to reduce the cost
Conclusions and suggestions

Agricultural production is associated with the use of productive resources industry - labor, land, water, material,

The technology of cultivation and storage of onions

The most important condition of good keeping quality of vegetables, timely cleaning them in a mature state before the onset of frosts. Unripe vegetables with enough suberized sheath can not be stored for a long time. Perestoyavshie and over-ripe fruits lose nutritional quality, coarse, often cracked, faster sick.
When laying the deposit, it is important that the vegetables do not have mechanical damage and were sorted in accordance with the commercial quality.
Varietal characteristics of vegetable crops also affect their safety in the winter and spring. Of the varieties of cabbage have better keeping quality, Amager, Byelocountryn, Hibernation, onions Arzamasskij, Bessonovsky, Strigunovsky, Pogarsky, Spassky, Danilov, Vishensky; carrot-Moscow

Land redistribution farm Kolos

Chapter 1. Setting features SORT
1.2 Composition of the land passed to the village administration
1.3 Calculation of the amount of land transferred rural administration
1.4 Establishment of the lands transferred rural administration
Chapter 2. Education is not land for farming purposes
2.1 General
2.2 Calculation of the area formed by the land
2.3 Accommodation is not farming land
2.4 Determination of the composition, size and value of land within the boundaries of not farming land
2.5 Loss of agricultural production and their compensation
2.6 Definition of types and sizes of land loss
2.7 Technical and economic parameters of the project
Chapter 3. Education land farm

Land reform in Country and the efficient use of land

Chapter 1. EARTH - The main means of production in agriculture.
Chapter 2. Land and efficiency of their use.
2.2 Economic efficient use of land.

Gametotsidy and their application in plant breeding

Gametotsidy - chemical compounds, application. Which at certain stages of plant development results in the death of a male gametophyte-ta as a result of violation of metabolic processes during the formation of pollen grains. Step gametotsidov on physiological and biochemical processes in the skie-like sterilizing cytoplasm of the cell when you move it the kernel, which causes male sterility.
Studies conducted in several countries, including the Soviet Union, have identified a number of chemical compounds, which induce male sterility in spring and winter wheat, rye and other crops. Using gametotsidov allows to organize Industrial. The production of hybrid seeds of grain and other crops. However obtained gametotsidy cause a number of undesirable side effects: a significant growth inhi


Groups selkohozyaystvennyh cultures
Other crops
Fibrous culture
Other fibrous culture
Other oilseeds
Power of Culture
Sugar cane
Sweet potato
Other korneklubneplody
Horse Breeding
Reindeer herding
Reindeer herding
Merino sheep
Karakul sheep
Sheep skin co

The economic efficiency of production and use of feed

1. Review of the literature.
2. Natural and economic characteristics of the economy.
3. Economic efficiency of production and use of forages in OAO "Young Guards".
3.1. Current status.
3.2. Organization of forage production.
3.3. Economic efficiency of production and use of forages in JSC "Young Guards".
4. How to improve the production and use of feed.
5. Conclusions and suggestions.
List of used literature.
In the socio-economic development of our country's agriculture occupies a special place. This is one of the main sectors of the economy, providing the population with food, and the industry with raw material. Agricultural and products that a

collective farm

1. General information about the economy.
1.1. Location and specialization of the economy.
1.2. The system of land management.
1.3. Characteristics of the climatic conditions.
2. Baselines for the development of systems of fertilizers.
2.1. Soils rotation of their agronomic performance.
2.2. The recommended rotation.
2.3. Data on the number of animals on the farm.
3. The system of fertilizer on the farm for crop rotation in the nursery.
3.1. Out of organic fertilizers.
3.2. Determining the possibility of using phosphoric flour.
3.4. Doses of fertilizers, depending on the availability of soil elements in food.
3.5. Plan placement of fertilizers by the method of introductio

The work of Soviet breeders during WWII

1.Chto such selection.
2.Genetika as the theoretical basis for selection.
3.Main methods used in selection:
a) selection;
b) hybridization;
c) polyploidy;
g) mutagenesis.
4.Primenenie selection:
a) agriculture;
b) livestock;
5.Selektsiya in Russia:
a) the legacy of Tsarist Russia;
b) Soviet selection after the October Revolution;
a) during the Second World War;
6.Spisok used literature.
The word "selection" is derived from Latin. "selectio", which translates
denotes a choice, selection. "Breeding? a science which
developing new ways and methods of producing plant varieties and
their hybrids, species zhivotnyh.Et

Dairy cattle

1. Theoretical basis of economic efficiency of milk production and improvement costs in dairy farming.
1.1 Value and condition of dairy cattle in Russia, the factors affecting it.
1.2 Ways to improve the efficiency of dairy cattle in the scientific literature.
2. Natural and economic characteristics OPKh "Minsk" Kostroma region Kostroma region.
3. Organization and improvement of the accounting of costs and yield of dairy farming in OPKh "Minsk" Kostroma region Kostroma region.
3.1 The importance and challenges of accounting.
3.2 Primary and consolidated accounting of costs and yields.
3.3 Organization of synthetic and analytical accounting.
3.4 Calculation of cost of production of dairy farming and

How to improve the livestock farm as an example

1. Subject: Ways to improve the efficiency of livestock farm on the example of "New Life" Ruzaevsky region of the Republic of Mordovia.
2. Deadline for submission of 01.03.97
3. Initial data for the thesis: the annual reports of the economy.
4. Contents of the thesis:
4.1. The theoretical basis for effective functioning of animal husbandry sector.
4.2. The efficiency of livestock production.
4.3. Improving the efficiency of milk production.
4.4. Conclusions and suggestions.
4.5. Safety and environmental friendliness.
5. List of sources used.

1. The theoretical basis for effective functioning
Livestock industry
1.1. Efficient

Flora of urban ecosystems

1. Natural and climatic conditions of the studied area
2. The purpose and objectives of the
3. Methods of research.
4. Synopsis flora community
4.1. Algae
4.2. Cryptogam
4.3. Gymnosperms
4.4. Bipartite
4.5. Monocots
4.6. Analysis of the system of the flora
5. Noxious and ruderal plants in the flora
6. Introduced species of plants.
6.1. Trees and shrubs.
6.2. Herbaceous plants.
7. Adventitious flora elements

Krasnodar region are extremely diverse natural environment and natural resources. In the Flora region, there are about 6 thousand species of flowering plants and the highest spore

Poisonous plants

Poisonous plants, plants that produce and accumulate in the vital activity of poisons. Cause poisoning of animals and humans. The world knows the flora of more than 10 thousand species Ya pp., Mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, many of them in countries of temperate and cold climates, and in Russia about 400 species. J. pp. occur among the fungi, horsetails, club mosses, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. In countries of temperate climate most commonly they are represented in the family Ranunculaceae, poppy, Euphorbiaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Fig-wort, Araceae. Many plant poisons in small doses - valuable therapeutic agents (morphine, strychnine, atropine, physostigmine, etc.).
The main active substances Ya pp. - Alkaloids, glycosides (including sapon

Triticale - the first crop

1.1. Background.
Triticale - the first crop, created by man, which was obtained in crosses of wheat (Triticum) with rye (Secale). Creating triticale (wheat-rye hybrids) - a new kind of cereal with a number of outstanding qualities and is a new botanical genus. By combining chromosome complexes of two different botanical families - the wheat and rye, were the first person in the history of agriculture to synthesize a new crop, which according to experts, in the near future will be one of the leading crops, and will also be cultivated for green fodder. Triticale - the wheat-rye hybrid that belongs to the type amfiploidam allopoliploidov. Applied also another term - amphidiploids in the case when the unknown genomic structure of the

Adaptation of plants

Ontogeny of plant adaptation to environmental conditions is a result of their evolution (variation, heredity, selection). During the phylogeny of each plant species in the process of evolution to develop certain needs of the individual to the conditions of existence and adaptation to the ecological niche occupied by him. Vlagolyubie and Shade, heat-resistant, cold tolerance and other environmental features of specific types of plants evolved in the course of evolution as a result of prolonged operation of the relevant conditions. Thus, heat-loving plants and plant short-day typical of southern latitudes, less demanding plants to heat and long day - to the north.
In nature, in the same geographical region, every type of plant occupies an ecological niche in relati

Contributions genotipichnyh and environmental factors in matamernuyu variability of grape leaves

INTRODUCTION ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4
1 OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 5
1.1 Brief biological characteristic of maize ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 5
1.2 Botanical relatives ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 8
1.3 Theories of the origin and evolution ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10
1.4 Group of maize ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 20
1.5 Enhancing the productivity of maize ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Fertilizers and their application

Chapter 1. General information about fertilizer.
Chapter 2. The main types of mineral fertilizers.
2.1. Phosphate fertilizers
2.2. Nitrogen fertilizers
2.3. Potassium fertilizer
2.4. Boron, magnesium and manganese fertilizer
Chapter 3. Application of fertilizers
Bibliographic list:

The use of mineral and organic fertilizer application of chemicals is the foundation of agriculture. The effectiveness of mineral and organic fertilizers depends largely on the introduction of industrial technology of cultivation of crops, integrated mechanization, land reclamation, use of scientific achievements, the implementation of inter-farm co-operatives and agro-industr

Entomology (textbook)

Methodological guidelines are written in accordance with the program at the rate of plant protection (entomology) for agronomic disciplines to teach students to correctly identify pests of agricultural crops. Handout merged into two sections: general entomology and agricultural entomology. This publication is intended for use in the educational process on agronomic field of full-time and distance learning.
Recommended for publication methodical Commission Agroecological Institute, the protocol number of


Section I. Total entomology
Topic 1. Pests, morphology and anatomy of insects. Biology of reproduction and development of insects.
Topic 2. Systematics of insects.
Topic 3. The main types of

blue-green algae - producers of toxic substances


1. Characteristics of Microcystis aeruginosa as a producer of toxins
2. Characteristics of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae as a producer of toxins
3. Effects of algal toxins on humans, animals and aquatic

4. Literature

Blue-green algae are widely distributed in nature. They were found in plankton standing and slowly flowing water in the coastal benthos, as epiphytes and fouling on various solid substrates in water, in hot springs on the surface of the snow, deep in the soil (edafon) in symbiosis with other organisms.
Many blue-green algae respond positively to the presence of organic compounds, including nitrogen. Therefore, they are always scarce in the seas and fresh waters. Especially a lot of them in

Our Green Planet

Vegetation zones of the Earth
Zona tropical rain forests
The vegetation is tropical moist forest
Everglade rain forest.
Poluvechnozelenye rainforest lowlands.
Tropical moist forests of South America
Tropical moist (rain) forests of Africa
Tropical moist forests of Asia
Mangroves, mangrove forests or
Zona tropical regions with a summer wet period
Letnezelenye rainforests
Tropical moist savanna
Tropical dry forests and dry savanna
Savanna Kolyuchekustarnikovye
The vegetation is savannah Australia
Zone semi-desert and desert
Sahara Desert
South African desert area
North American Sonoran desert
Deserts and semi-deserts of Asia
Zone steppes
Eastern S

Forest plantation


On the development of the railway line, before the railway-nicks question of protection of railway lines from unfavorable weather conditions gopriyatnyh.
Forest plantations along the lines of railways, constitute the main means of protecting the way of many of the adverse natural phenomena. Roadside plantings serve as protective engineering structures used in the system of measures to ensure the safe and uninterrupted movement of trains, increase road capacity. They help reduce transportation costs. Also great is their environmental, health and hygiene, recreation, aesthetic and general reclamation value. Under the protection of roadside plantings significantly improved the working conditions of railway, especially when carrying out work on the track. Road

The nature of flowering sortoobraztsov Triticum persicum


2.1. Conditions, venue experience.
2.2. Source material.
2.3. The methodology of the research.
3.1. Nature flowering sortoobraztsov Triticum persicum for 1998
3.2. Influence of weather conditions on the nature of flowering soortoobraztsov in 1998
3.3 Nature of flowering sortoobraztsov Triticum persicum in 1999
3.4. Influence of weather conditions on the nature of flowering sortoobraztsov in 1999
3.5. Yield sortoobraztsov Triticum persicum.


1. Production of silage.

The art of making silage as a way to save succulent fodder has been known for thousands of years, although the complex biochemical and microbiological changes that occur during the processes of silage, it became clear relatively recently.
Silage, or leavening, - a way of preserving green fodder, in which the plant mass stored in a damp condition in pits, trenches, or special facilities - silos. Forage, more or less compressed and isolated from access of air, is subjected to fermentation, gets a sour taste, it becomes softer, somewhat changes the color (brown color), but still juicy.
Silage has several advantages compared with other methods of preserving food.

??????Methods silage

1. cold;
2. hot.

The organization of agricultural production

The organization of agricultural production is a crown of agricultural science. It includes many disciplines, including as a purely agricultural, and economic. Of the agricultural sciences most closely related science: farming, ranching, land management and farming systems, of economic: Management and Marketing.
Special branch of the organization of agricultural production is the organization of production of new varieties. This discipline has its own peculiarities. These features include:
1. substantial relationship with Agromarketing;
2. high research intensity;
3. large amount of non-motorized manual labor;
4. result of industrial activity is a new variety or even a new culture.
Basic principles of organization

Development of views on the power plants to Liebig

Report Agrochemistry
Development of views on the power plants to Liebig
The history of agricultural chemistry in our country can be a subdivision-
pour into three periods. The first period covers the end of the XVIII
and the first half of the XIX century. This period is characterized-
Xia accumulation of data on plant nutrition, the pro-
neniem fertilizers and the first attempts at their synthesis.
The second period covers the second half of the XIX and beginning XX
centuries before the October coup, the 17-th year. This
period characterized by the development of experiments in laboratories,
experimental stations and in industrial conditions.
Works of this period shows the need for a deep
study of plant nutrit

Organization of dairy cattle on the farm

Project task
1. Designing trafficking and the structure of the herd in line with the planned regulations.
2. Calculation of gross output and marketable products, and products growing at a structural head herd.
3. Design, economic evaluation and selection of the most effective type of feeding cows.
3.1. Economic evaluation of forages.
3.2. Calculation of norms of feeding cows.
3.3. Development of feed rations.
3.4. Calculation of annual demand and the cost of feed for cows and bulls
3.5. Calculating the size of the feed area, labor costs, cash expenditures on food compared, type of feeding.
3.6. Evaluation projected types of feeding cows and choose the most profitable of them.
4. Calcul

plant protection

Intensification of agricultural production, improving the culture of farming, create favorable conditions to implement a scientifically based set of activities aimed at the rational use of chemical, biological and other means of protecting plants from pests, diseases and weeds. This helps reduce post-harvest losses and to learn much larger number of high-quality products.
In the system of protective measures is a fundamental chemical method. However, its application must be strict compliance with regulations and technologies as well as in the case of their violation is noted the development of resistant species of pests, environmental pollution (soil, water sources, air), food and fodder, a negative effect on useful fauna, flora and people.
To reduce

Fundamentals of mechanization

1. What is called the mechanization of agriculture?
Application of Masha and mechanisms in agriculture, in order to facilitate labor and increase productivity
2. How to share passenger cars?
Buses and cars
3. How to distinguish the engines on the character of the workflow?
two-stroke, four-
4. Chassis consists of a crawler tractor?
frame, sprocket, the idler, foot carriage, support rollers, caterpillar track
5. What applies to work equipment tractor?
hydraulic system, hitch, tow hitch, power shaft, hodoumenshitel, magnifying torque
6. What parts are called special?
special parts with which machines perform workflow
7. What are the main processes of soil treatment?
Cutting the weeds, loosening, crushin

Bookmark berry fruit-garden

1. Analysis of the climatic conditions in the area of the garden favorites
2. Analysis and evaluation of soil differences, terrain
3. Organization of the garden
3.1. A breakdown of the territory into wards
3.2. Planning sadozaschitnyh plantations
3.3. Design of the road network of reservoirs and outbuildings
3.4. Sister-grade composition of plantations
3.5. Placing plants in the garden and the definition of planting material.
3.6. The technology of soil preparation and planting of fruit plants
3.7. Requirements for the planting material
3.8. Rationale agromeropriyaty care plantings
3.9. Calculation of the need for fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides and their value